Stages of melanoma - photo
MelanomaIs the most aggressive and malignant tumor in oncology, which develops from melanocytes. These cells synthesize a specific skin pigment - melanin.
Among all skin cancers, melanoma occurs in 10% of patients. Due to early metastasis and rapid growth, this neoplasm is most often the cause of cancer death. Cancers of the skin often develop in light-skinned and blue-eyed people. The risk group also includes people aged 35-50 years.
Melanoma photo initial stage:
Skin cancer - causes and risk factors
The causes of melanoma formation are:
- Irradiation with ultraviolet rays. It is noteworthy that the cumulative dose of ultraviolet is important for the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. For the formation of melanoma, one-time intensive solar irradiation is sufficient.
- Multiple ultraviolet skin burns. In people who have burned skin lesions, the chance of malignant melanocyte formation increases several fold.
- Mechanical trauma of moles and nevi. Acute or chronic damage of pigment spots is observed when they are placed in places subject to friction clothing, shaving area.
Oncology of the skin also develops when the hormonal balance is disturbed and the activity of the immune system is sharply reduced.
Stages of melanoma - photo
Melanoma stage - photo:
In cancer practice, malignant tumors are divided depending on the volume of pathological tissues, the prevalence of the process and the presence of metastatic lesions.
- 1st stage:
The tumor size does not exceed 2 mm and there are no metastases in the regional lymph nodes.
- 2nd stage:
Melanoma in diameter takes more than 2 mm and there are no secondary lesions.
- Stage 3:
A typical manifestation of this stage is metastases in the lymph nodes.
- 4th stage:
The cancer tumor metastasizes to distant organs and systems.
According to the clinical picture, melanoma is classified as follows:
- Surface spreading form:
The most common type of melanoma process. Malignant neoplasm has the appearance of a flat plaque with uneven outlines. This lesion with uneven coloring can occur both at the site of the birthmark, and against the background of unchanged skin. The first 4-5 years the focus of pathology maintains a stable state. In the end, there is a rapid transformation of the tumor with a predominance of deep growth in the underlying tissues.
- Nodular form:
According to statistical data, this type of melanoma is 10-30% of all malignant neoplasms of the skin. The formation of a nodular lesion is accompanied by very rapid oncological growth and early metastasis. Such characteristics cause the most malignant clinical course of the nodular form of melanoma.
This form of oncology is found in the elderly in open areas of the body and is characterized by a relatively benign course, which is a long period of stable growth.
Diagnosis of melanoma
Despite the specific nature of the appearance of the tumor, sometimes there are certain difficulties in the diagnosis, especially when the congenital nevi is affected.
Biopsy as a method of setting the final diagnosis is carried out by excision type. Cancer tissues are amenable to cytological analysis after radical excision of the entire tumor together with a site of healthy tissue.
Additional procedures for the detection of melanoma and its prevalence are roentgenology, ultrasound diagnosis of the affected area.
IMPORTANT TO KNOW: Melanoma is the initial stage. Photo melanoma.
Methods of treatment depending on the stage of melanoma
The basic method of anticancer therapy is a surgical operation. Even with the formation of single metastases in regional lymph nodes, surgeons are advised to excise as a mutation focus, so a secondary cancerous tumor.
Photo of early stage melanoma:
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used to diagnose metastases in distant organs.
- First and second therapystage melanoma:
It consists in the radical excision of the tumor and part of nearby healthy tissues, which is favorably displayed on the long-term results of treatment.
- Therapy of the third stage of the lesion:
Implies in addition to surgery radiological impact on regional lymph nodes. Radiation irradiation causes the death of metastatic elements of the tumor.
- Late stage therapy:
Comes in a complex effect on the tumor with the use of surgery, radiology and chemotherapy. Despite the vastness of medical measures, melanoma in the fourth stage of malignant growth has an unfavorable prognosis diseases and the average life expectancy of such cancer patients does not exceed six months from the establishment of the final diagnosis.
TO AN ATTENTION: Melanoma is the initial stage. Description, photo
Prognosis of melanoma
Due to the high aggressiveness of growth and the early formation of metastases, the prognosis of the disease is negative. The chances of recovery remain only in patients in the early stages of superficial melanomas..