What is dangerous keratoma?

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A small convex patch of a brownish or grayish color on the surface of the skin is called -keratoma. In size initially, it can resemble a small mole or freckle. But gradually the stratum corneum of the epidermis expands and reaches a considerable value, sometimes exceeding 5 cm. Pigmented formation is single or multiple.

Causes

Education is not contagious. However, scientists assume that it is capable of being inherited. The conditions for the onset of the disease are varied and depend on the type of build-up.

It is believed that most often they are a response to the effects of sunlight on unprotected skin. Ultraviolet radiation penetrates through the skin, injuring them. Such constantly repeating conditions provoke rapid growth of epidermal cells and their transformation. That's why the disease is peculiar to older people.

In men, the disease manifests itself more often. This is due to the fact that they neglect the daily protection from ultraviolet radiation.

Pathogenesis

At its core, the neoplasm is a benign tumor. The source of the disease is keratin cells of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, trauma or chronic mechanical damage can cause mutation and active division of the pigment cells of the skin.

Thus, keratoma is nothing else than keratinization of the epidermis.

Clinical picture

The disease usually proceeds asymptomatically. However, early signs include:

  1. Identification of discolored roughness on the surface of the skin.
  2. Any skin irregularities and color changes may indicate the onset of the disease.

In this regard, you need to carefully examine the skin of the face, if possible, the head, shoulders, hands, chest. Some types of keratosis seals are observed even in closed areas of the body.

Mature symptoms are characterized by the following characteristics:

  • large for the size of the seal, which is constantly increasing and begins to be exceeded above the skin;
  • dark brown or reddish color, prone to change;
  • keratinization of the epidermis;
  • itching, burning and exfoliation;
  • on neglected stages - inflammation and bleeding.
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There are cases when keratosis seals simply disappear from the skin or spontaneously peel off. But after a while the growths can appear again. Usually dermatologists, even with early signs recommendremoval of keratoma.

What is the danger of the disease?

The spots themselves are not dangerous. People can live with them for many years. But the proliferation of pigmented spots often causes discomfort. In addition, neoplasms can become several.

The real danger arises when such a skin formation degenerates into a malignant tumor. If the spots grow, begin to bleed or get uneven edges, this may indicate the transformation of education into squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of a malignant process, doctors recommend the immediate removal of education.

Why does the keratoma occur in young people?

In recent years, keratotic spots are increasingly diagnosed in young people. This is due to the following factors:

  • unreliable protection from the sun, when the funds miss more than 50% of the ultraviolet;
  • living in a sunny area;
  • presence of freckles on the body;
  • in people with light blond or red hair, as well as light skin and eyes, keratose pigmentation occurs more often than in dark-haired women with swarthy skin and brown eyes.

Types and their description

Follicular Keratoma

Follicular formation of the skin arises from cornified follicles. Therefore, most often localized near the scalp or in the area above the upper lip. In appearance, these are small nodules not exceeding 2 cm. Color - from pink to gray.

This type of formation is more susceptible to middle-aged women. It is diagnosed in 1 case out of 100, but is characterized by a high level of danger.

Seborrheic Keratoma

This type of neoplasm is a small spot slightly elevated above the skin. First it appears yellow or brown, but after a while it becomes darker. Sealing increases rapidly, provoking pain or itching. Its upper layer becomes cornified, covered with deep cracks and scaly. In these places, wounds that tend to bleed can be identified.

This is the most dangerous form of such neoplasms, because it often regenerates into skin cancer.

Star keratoma

This form of the disease is considered the most common. In older patients, single or multiple benign lesions of the skin can be observed. In such cases, the pigmented rounded plaques are covered with several layers of cornified epithelium.

Treatment

In advanced clinicskeratomacan be subjected to such methods of disposal:

  • Laser therapy:

This is the safest and most effective way of excising pigmented spots. A specialist with the help of a carbon dioxide laser removes a benign neoplasm. At the same time, nearby healthy tissues remain untouched.

  • Cryotherapy:

Treatment of keratoma with liquid nitrogen is recommended for single seborrhoeic forms of keratomic growths. Ultra-low temperatures cause necrosis and exfoliation of pathological cells.

  • Radiosurgery:

The technique consists in dissection of the skin by radio wave radiation, which causes a thermal reaction in the epidermis.

  • Surgery:

Classical radical intervention foresees the incision of the skin and complete removal of pigmented plaque. The operation is performed under local anesthesia and ends with the application of a suture. The disadvantage of this method is the formation of a scar at the site of surgical intervention.

  • Electrocoagulation:

This is a reliable and simple way to get rid of benign skin tumors. The essence of technology lies in the impact on the pathological focus of an electric current. This manipulation is performed under local infiltration anesthesia.

Advantages of the technique are: complete removal of pigmentation and coagulation of blood vessels, which excludes postoperative bleeding.

Electrocoagulation is not recommended for patients with concomitant pathologies of the cardiovascular system (arrhythmias and hypertension).

Can the keratoma go to cancer?

Althoughkeratomais a benign neoplasm, there is a high probability of its malignant transformation. This can be facilitated by prolonged stay of the patient in the zone of action of ultraviolet radiation, acute and chronic injury of the pigmented area of ​​the body. Particularly attentive should be people with a genetic predisposition to the development of oncology of the epidermis.

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It is important to know:

. Treatment of Keratoma.
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