Symptoms and how to recognize melanoma?


Even careful observance of all safety rules in the sun can not provide a person full confidence that skin cancer will never occur.

Melanoma usually occurs in open areas of the body (face, neck, arms, upper back and legs). In addition, it is the most aggressive type of oncology among all cancers and ranks first among the causes of mortality of cancer patients.

Based on the foregoing, one should know everything about this malignant diseas, amely how to identify and accurately recognize melanoma at an early stage.

Types of melanoma and the distinctive features between them

The main types of malignant skin lesions and their presentation include:

  1. Superficial distribution. This type is about 70% of all cases of melanoma skin. Features:
  • in women often localized on the legs, in men - on the back;
  • usually occur between the ages of 30 and 50;
  • seemingly flat or barely raised, have a distinct and uneven color;
  • slowly grow and increase in size;
  • can be easily diagnosed at the initial stage, if the formation has not expanded beyond the junction of the dermis and epidermis.
  1. Nodal melanoma. About 20% begin deep in the skin. They have a color from blue-black to purple. Are prone to rapid development, consolidation and transformation into an aggressive form.
  2. Lentigo(malignant). Unlike other forms, tend to grow in places subject to constant sun exposure. Characterized by a large and irregular shape. Are prone to both rapid and slow development. Because of unpredictability of the behavior, an early removal is recommended.

It is important to know:Melanoma - photo the initial stage. Photo melanoma

Hidden forms of melanoma

Cancer of a mole can also occur in places that are only occasionally susceptible to sunlight. Most people are not even aware of this possibility.

Types include:

  1. Education under the fingernailIs a rare form that also occurs on the palms or soles of the feet.
  2. The defeat of the mouth, digestive tract, urinary tract and intimate organs: formed in the mucous membrane lining the nose, mouth, esophagus, etc. Rarely diagnosed at the initial stages, because it is taken for other health problems.
  3. Tumor of the pigmented tissue of the eye: mainly found in the choroid of the eyeball - the layer under the white particle of the eye (sclera).

Important to know: The cyst on the eye turns into cancer?

Melanoma of the skin - symptoms and exact symptoms

The Cancer Institute uses such international designations to characterize the malignant process of the skin as ABCDE. The symbols indicate the main conditions by which the sign of the "ugly duckling" (mutated lesion) is defined:

  • A (asymmetry). A person should carefully consider each pigmented (dark area). The symptom is based on revealing the discrepancy between two halves of the same birthmark;
  • B (from the English. - border): if the edges of any darkening of the epidermis are uneven, ostensibly torn, dentate, this indicates a malignant transformation;
  • C (color)-this is another warning sign. The person should find out whether the pigmented spot is different in color or includes several colors at the same time;
  • D (diameter):melanomausually more for the size of the rubber in the pencil, that is, more than 6 mm. But sometimes, at primary detection, the sizes of a tumor are insignificant;
  • E (evolution): any education requires careful monitoring of changes, including the identification of any of the signs described.

It is important to know:Melanoma is the initial stage. PHOTOS, description

Other signs of melanoma

Some oncological processes do not comply with the rules, so you need to carefully evaluate such conditions:

  • prolonged painful sensations;
  • Wounds and ulcers on the skin, which do not heal for a long time;
  • the spread of pigmentation beyond the boundaries of the original spot on the surrounding tissue;
  • reddening of the integument and pronounced puffiness;
  • change of surface: roughness, purulent discharge, appearance of densification;
  • The presence of a large brown spot with dark specks.

How quickly to recognize melanoma?

Self-examination often helps to identify melanoma at an early stage. The manual contains such recommendations:

  1. When observing dark spots on the skin, it is better to consult a doctor immediately and conduct a thorough medical diagnosis. However, it should be understood that each of us eventually gets a new pigmentation or birthmark on the skin. This does not necessarily mean cancer. Such dermal neoplasms can be a consequence of a benign process.
  2. He treats moles with care. But this does not mean that they need to be deleted. Most melanomas do not arise from the already existing pigmented areas, but form in a new place. Therefore, it is extremely important to respond to the emergence of a new education!
  3. Rapid and strong change, as a rule, does not indicate oncological behavior, but is provoked by minor trauma. Worry is needed when education changes slowly.

In addition to all of the above, each person must adhere to such rules of self-diagnosis:

  • regularly inspect the body and condition of moles, pigment spots;
  • in the summer and autumn periods pay attention to the appearance of unusual additional spots on the body, darkening, (except for those already available);
  • follow the changes in the structure and appearance of already existing moles, freckles and nevi.

It is important to know:Stages of melanoma - photo

Symptoms of melanoma of a birthmark

The usual birthmarks are as follows:

  • they can vary in color from light to brown and black. And also prone to discoloration, but always consist of only one shade;
  • difference in appearance and shape: from flat and small to convex, from oval to round;
  • clear boundaries and small diameter.

When the pigmentation does not meet the described characteristics, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist.

Important aspects:

  • Birthmarks do not predominate after 35 years;
  • the total number of normal spots on the body does not exceed 45;
  • if there are three or more shades in coloring, this may indicate an oncological degeneration;
  • sometimes the doctor speaks of "atypical" moles. The level of oncological propensity directly depends on the number of such formations. People with more than 24 birthmarks on the body have a high tendency to develop skin oncology.

Prevention of melanoma

To reduce the risk of developing skin melanoma it is desirable:

  1. Avoid aggressive sunlight between 10.00 am and 4.00 pm. And, you need to know that ultraviolet accumulates in the body over time, causing damage in the form of pigmented spots on the skin. And they in many cases provoke cancer.
  2. It is imperative that sunscreens with an SPF factor of at least 15 should be applied to the sun when leaving the sun, and in the summer, use waterproof protective cream with an SPF 30 factor.
  3. Wear quality sunglasses that block two types of radiation - UVA and UVB.
  4. Wear light clothing, tightly covering the body, as well as wide-brimmed hats.
  5. Avoid hiking in the solarium.

Early detection of signs and symptoms of melanoma is of great importance for favorable treatment outcomes, therefore each person should regularly conduct self-diagnosis of skin condition at home, and also without fail to visit doctor-dermatologist.


It is important to know:

. What does malignant papilloma look like?.
. Can a nevi go to cancer?.
. Melanoma: forecast and what to expect?.