Local recurrence of melanoma
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous malignant neoplasms, which is characterized by early metastasis and causes high mortality among patients. The tumor is formed due to mutation of cells of moles and pigment spots.Local recurrence of melanomarequires surgical operation. This complication is perceived as a cancerous tumor in 4 stages.
Repeated melanoma formation occurs for the following reasons:
- Incomplete removal of the primary tumor, when residual elements of malignant oncogenesis remain in the operative wound.
- Metastases of melanoma. Such a malignant tumor is able at an early stage to allocate metastases to regional lymph nodes. Relapse in such cases is associated with tumor growth in the lymph nodes.
The secondary tumor of melanocytes develops in such forms:
- Rounded seals of subcutaneous tissue in the upper and lower extremities.
- A large number of small pigment nodes that are located along the postoperative scar.
- Tumor neoplasms of the skin, as a consequence of the limited removal of primary melanoma.
- Multiple pigmented malignant neoplasms that develop on the site of an ulcerated cancerous tumor. Such an oncological lesion is considered the result of the spread of a large number of mutated cells into the subcutaneous adipose tissue.
- The growth of malignant oncoforming on a wide or narrow base.
- Local relapse of melanoma, combining simultaneously signs of several categories.
In addition to local symptoms, the disease causes:
- periodic rise in temperature to low-grade indicators and night sweats;
- decreased appetite and body weight;
- general malaise and fatigue;
- loss of efficiency and apathy.
How to recognize the local recurrence of melanoma in time?
Timely diagnosis of repeated skin tumors is possible under the following circumstances:
- The operated patient should regularly undergo preventive examinations with an oncologist. The regularity of such visits is two times a year. During the examination, the doctor examines the skin and feels the regional lymph nodes. The appearance of the slightest suspicion of oncology serves as an occasion for additional advanced diagnosis.
- Annual blood test for oncomarkers. The patient at the same time sheds blood from the vein. Laboratory analysis shows the amount of biologically active substances that are strongly released in response to the growth of malignant neoplasm.
- Self-examination of skin. If a person determines a local discoloration of the epidermis or the formation of a new pigmentation spot, he should soon visit the oncologist for a more detailed medical examination.
What is the risk of local recurrence of melanoma?
A secondary cancerous tumor of melonocytes very often provokes a fatal outcome. The high mortality rate of patients with this pathology is explained by the active spread of cancer cells throughout the body through the circulatory and lymphatic system.
Local recurrence of melanoma can metastasize to the lungs, liver, bone tissue and brain. Such complications are very often inconsistent with the life of the cancer patient.
Re-education of oncology is often accompanied by active and rapid growth of malignant neoplasm.
In addition to visual examination of the pathological area of the skin, specialists can prescribe the passage of the following diagnostic measures:
- Histochemical analysis, allowing to determine the exact location of cancer cells in the skin.
- Identification of mutated cells by internal administration of radioactive phosphorus preparations.
- Cytological technology, which studies the cellular composition of the pathological area of the skin.
- Thermodifferential test - this method is based on the measurement of infrared radiation from different areas of the skin.
- Lymphoscintigraphy is a technique that allows a doctor to evaluate the functioning of the lymphatic system and determine the presence of metastasis in the lymph nodes.
- Electrometric examination - detection of malignant neoplasm occurs as a result of measuring the electrical conductivity of cancerous and physiologically healthy epidermal tissue.
- Calculation of the number of monoclonal bodies in the circulatory system of the body. Local recurrence of melanoma causes an increase in the concentration of such substances.
The choice of the method of therapy for malignant neoplasm of the skin depends on the location, the size of the secondary focus of the mutation and the presence of metastases in the regional lymph nodes. The most effective method of treatment is a surgical operation. Radical intervention involves the removal of a cancerous tumor and part of a nearby healthy epidermal tissue.
Often, doctors prescribe additional methods of anticancer therapy that can act as supplement to the main type of treatment or serve as an independent method of improving the quality of life of inoperable patients. In modern oncology centers, special attention is paid to such methods of therapy:
- Irradiation of the pathological region with highly active radiologic radiation.
- Chemotherapy - an individually selected course of taking cytotoxic drugs slows down and stabilizes the growth of malignant neoplasm.
- Immunotherapy - increasing the body's resistance prolongs life for seriously ill patients.
- Radioimmunotherapy - this technique enables a specialist to influence virtually all cells of a cancerous tumor and prevent the occurrence of relapses.
Consequences and complications
Local recurrence of melanom, irst of all, is dangerous metastasizing neoplasm. In such cases, cancer cells enter the brain, liver and lungs. The high mortality rate of such patients is due to the development of cancerous foci in these organs.
Complications of cancer recurrence are considered the result of late diagnosis. It should be noted that timely detection of the tumor is very difficult because of its small size and absolutely asymptomatic leakage. The most dangerous and aggressive melanomas are localized in the skin of the face.
Forecast and how much do they live?
Repeated melanoma formation has an unfavorable prognosis. The life span of such patients is influenced by such factors:
- Presence of ulceration sites in the area of malignant growth.
- Thickness of pathological focus. The thicker the tumor, the shorter the patient's life.
- Intensity of coloration of the tumor. People with severe pigmentation have higher chances of recovery.
- Sexual accessory. According to statistics, mortality is higher among men.
- Location of oncoforming. The most negative prognosis doctors make to patients with neoplasms of the head and neck.
Unfortunately,local recurrence of melanomareduces the average life expectancy of an oncological patient up to 1-2 years. All medical measures during this period are only palliative..