Chemotherapy for melanoma
Chemotherapy is a method of anti-cancer treatment, during which the patient takes cytostatic drugs that cause the death of cancer cells. After the administration of the drug to the patient, it spreads through the body through the circulatory system. Thus, drug treatment can affect virtually all cancerous tumors and metastases. Chemotherapy for melanoma significantly prolongs the life of a seriously ill person.
Feasibility of conducting
Repeated melanoma formation is considered quite a serious pathology, since such a tumor actively metastasizes already at the initial stages of growth. Prevent the spread of malignant cells can only be through chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy drugs are recommended for use in such cases:
- Melanoma in the 3rd and 4th stages of cancer growth.
- The presence of single metastases in regional lymph nodes.
- Complex therapy of malignant neoplasms. Chemotherapy at the same time complements the surgical technique and radiotherapy.
- Multiple secondary oncoforms in internal organs.
It is unacceptable to take cytotoxic drugs for patients with such symptoms:
- Pronounced cachexia. Significant decrease in body weight against chronic fatigue.
- Severe general condition of the patient with signs of cancer intoxication.
- The presence of metastases in the liver and brain tissue.
- High level of bilirubin.
Advantages of chemotherapeutic techniques are as follows:
- The introduction of the drug directly into the bloodstream, which makes it possible to point to the local relapse of melanoma.
- Systemic effect of the cytostatic drug on the whole organism.
- Absence of anesthesia, cuts of skin and radiographic irradiation.
What does efficiency depend on?
The effectiveness of this treatment method is directly dependent on the stage of the oncological neoplasm and the presence of metastatic nodes. In fact, the earlier a tumor is diagnosed, the more effective chemotherapy will be.
Also, the treatment process is affected by the age of the patient and his state of health. Most cancer patients after the course of therapy noted improvement in well-being, increased appetite and reduced pain attacks. Such subjective effect is observed after 2-3 weeks upon completion of the drug.
What drugs are used for chemotherapy in melanoma?
Cytostatic drugs are prescribed for patients with melanoma lesions. Between this reception of funds the patient is assigned a recovery period. The number and duration of these cycles is determined individually for each clinical case.
The most popular means of chemotherapy are:
The drug affects the disease at the cellular level. In a cancerous tumor there is a disruption in the synthesis of DNA and RNA, which is manifested by the destruction of mutated tissues. Long-term use of the drug may provoke secondary damage to the heart tissue and development of malignant neoplasms of connective tissue.
The therapeutic effect of this pharmaceutical is based on the violation of the structure of the tumor by blocking the processes of fission. The drug is actively absorbed in the area of cancer growth and is extremely slowly released from the cells of the patient's body.
The agent has a double action. On the one hand, the DNA structure of tumor cells is destroyed, and on the other, the drug strengthens the immune system of the cancer cell. As a result of such treatment, doctors observe the stabilization of malignant growth and even the regress of some tumors.
The antitumor effect of the drug is in the disorder of the cell cycle of fission. The tumor decreases in size. "Temozolomide in addition, has an immunosuppressive effect, which is sometimes necessary in the post-operation period.
This antitumor drug inhibits the activity of intracellular enzymes of a cancerous tumor. As a result, after intravenous administration it penetrates into all cells of the body and stops the growth of neoplasm at all stages of oncology. The indications for the use of the agent are: melanom, varian cancer and malignant lesions of the lymphatic system.
The introduction of medicines into the bloodstream causes accumulation of the drug in the pathological area. At the same time, the sequence of DNA fission processes is disrupted in cancer cells, which is indicated by the stopping of cancer growth. The ability of "cisplatin" to combat primary tumors and relapses is due to the activation of the body's defenses.
The drug blocks intracellular energy production, which is necessary to maintain the vital activity of cancerous tissues. In practice, the malignant neoplasm stabilizes and regresses.
The negative consequences of chemotherapy are related to the fact that cytotoxic agents predominantly affect all cells that actively divide. These can be cancerous tissues, structures of the circulatory system, epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract and hair follicles. That is why the following side effects are observed in patients after chemotherapy:
- Oppression of the red bone marrow, which is clinically manifested by a decrease in the concentration of red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells in the blood. In such patients, pale skin, spontaneous internal bleeding and a high risk of contracting infectious diseases are observed.
- From the digestive system, nausea, periodic vomiting and periodic diarrhea occur.
- Chemotherapy, affecting melanoma, has a negative effect on the function of the central nervous system. Such patients can be observed: headaches, dizziness, neuropathy and depression.
- Alopecia or hair loss. This is the most common complication of taking cytotoxic drugs.
- Skin covers after chemotherapy also suffer. Patients often note redness, itching and increased skin peeling.
- Some cytostatic pharmaceuticals have an irritant effect on the mucous membrane of the bladder and kidneys. Such complications are of a short-term nature and completely disappear after withdrawal of the remedy.
The price of the course of chemotherapy depends on the level of the clinic, the diagnosis of the patient and the medication. On average, the cost of one course of receiving cytotoxic drugs varies within the range of 100-500 dollars. USA.
Many patients diagnosed with melanoma, after chemotherapy, feel better. And doctors point to the stabilization of the oncological process and the transition of the disease to the stage of remission..