Melanoma - photo the initial stage. Photo melanoma
Melanoma is a skin cancer that develops from melanocytes. These cells in the human body are responsible for the production of melanin, which forms the color of the skin. The disease proceeds extremely aggressively with the early formation of metastatic lesions, which causes a high mortality of such cancer patients.
Melanocyte oncology only in the early stages of malignant lesion lends itself to effective treatment. Therefore, it is very important to know the early manifestations of melanoma and how melanoma looks at the initial stage for timely diagnosis and prevention of the negative consequences of the disease.
Melanoma - the causes of education
Despite the unidentified reliable reason for the development of atypical mutations in melanocytes, the following risk factors are distinguished in oncology practice:
- Long and regular exposure to ultraviolet rays. Especially dangerous are sun rays at lunchtime, when the skin covers receive the highest dose of ultraviolet.
- Chronic burns of exposed skin.
- Arrangement of moles, nevuses or pigment spots in places of permanent trauma.
- Genetic predisposition is an increased cancer risk when there are oncological diseases in direct relatives.
TO THE ATTACHMENT: Mole Cancer
How does the initial stage look like melanoma?
Most often melanoma is formed on the spot of a pigmented spot or birthmark. There are no systemic manifestations of the disease.
Photo of melanoma:
At the local level, this malignant neoplasm is characterized by the formation of a pigmented spot or subcutaneous node. In rare cases, melanoma is not accompanied by the formation of melanin and the tumor has the appearance of a light spot.
Superficial types of melanoma tend to grow slowly and develop. For the nodular form, the lightning fastness of malignant progression is considered typical, in which the tumor can pass from the first stage to the third or fourth in a few weeks.
IMPORTANT TO KNOW: Malignant neoplasm of skin
Melanoma the initial stage - how to warn? Self-examination
People with fair skin and eyes, multiple moles and over the age of 50 years closely monitor the condition of the skin and regularly undergo preventive oncological inspections.
Self-diagnosis of malignant lesions consists of examining the skin for the detection of new pigment spots or a change in the structure of already existing nevi.
Signs of cancer alertness include:
- The asymmetry of the nevus is the discrepancy between the sizes of the two conditioned halves of the neoplasm.
- The blurring of the border of the birthmark, clinically the edges of the lesion have a dentate shape.
- Melanoma lesion, as a rule, has a shiny surface.
- Often such a malignant neoplasm undergoes spontaneous decay.
- The specific color of melanoma is manifested by the presence of several shades in the structure of the tumor.
- The focus of cancerous lesions in most cases exceeds 5 mm in diameter.
- The outer layer of the malignant neoplasm does not contain the hair.
- Progression of the tumor is not accompanied by a rapid increase in tumor volume.
Melanoma - photo, initial stage:
The stages of self-diagnosis of melanoma include:
- Detailed examination of the head area, including oral, nasal and auric cavities.
- Visual examination of the neck, chest and, with the help of a mirror, the back.
- Investigation of the abdomen and genitals.
- The finger method determines the condition of the axillary lymph nodes.
Melanoma initial stage - diagnosis
The quality of melanoma treatment and the prognosis of the disease directly depend on the early diagnosis of the lesion. To determine the oncologic diagnosis, the oncologist-doctor conducts a visual examination of the pathology zone. A detailed study of malignant neoplasm is performed using a dermatoscope, which is a special device for viewing the pathology in an enlarged form.
In modern oncological clinics, digital dermatoscopes are used that allow one to view a malignant neoplasm in a three-dimensional image on a monitor screen.
An effective additional method for diagnosing melanoma is the analysis of blood for cancer (oncomarkers are specific proteins, the concentration of which increases with cancer disease).
All cancers are biopsied at the final stage of the examination. Cytological and histological studies of biological material taken from a primary cancerous foci make it possible to establish a definitive diagnosis indicating the stage and form of oncology.
Treatment of melanoma in the initial stages
Melanoma, the initial stage necessarily undergoes surgical excision. The tactics of surgical intervention is determined individually and according to generally accepted standards is the removal of 2-5 cm of nearby healthy tissues to prevent recurrence of the disease. In surgical practice, it is believed that the more radical the removal of pathological tissues, the higher the rates of postoperative survival.
In some cases, with a significant spread of the cancer process, it is advisable to use combined method of therapy, which consists in radiological irradiation of the affected area of the body after surgical intervention. Radiation therapy, due to the action of highly active X-rays, destroys cancer cells and thereby prevents the formation of metastases and relapses of the disease.
Video about how to recognize melanoma?
Prognosis of the initial stage of melanoma
In the first stages of cancerous skin lesions, under the condition of complex anticancer therapy, a favorable outcome of anti-cancer treatment is observed in 85% of patients. Diagnosis of melanoma in the late stages is negative, postoperative survival rate does not exceed 20%..