The appearance of neoplasms on the skin is an alarming symptom that can lead to the development of skin cancer. Colorless melanoma is one of the manifestations of this pathology. It is characterized by malignancy and rapid development.
What is the danger of melanoma without melting pigment?
The danger of this malignant neoplasm is due to the fact that its detection in the early stages is not an easy task. Initially, pigment-free melanoma is similar to an ordinary birthmark, which has an unusual color and shape.
As a rule, early detection occurs during a diagnostic examination for other diseases.
A distinctive feature of the disease is specific color, rapid growth and early metastasis.
Pathogenesis in stages
The main criterion by which it is possible to determine the stage of the development of the disease is the thickness of the neoplasm, as well as the rate of division of the atypical cells.
The thickness of the mole is directly proportional to the chances of recovery, that is, the smaller its thickness, the more likely that the treatment will be successful!
For the I and II stages of a colorless melanoma, the following characteristics are characteristic:
- the formation is limited;
- there is no metastasis in internal organs and regional lymph nodes.
In the first stages, the probability that the tumor will spread further is rather low.
There are four stages of development of melanoma, depending on its thickness;
- Zero Step- this is the initial process, which is characterized by the fact that the tumor has not sprouted into the epidermis.
- Thin melanoma- the tumor has grown into the depth of the epidermis by one millimeter.
- Average degree- characterized by sprouting up to four millimeters.
- Thick melanoma- differs by germination more than four millimeters.
For the III stage, the appearance of qualitative changes in the development of the pathological process is characteristic.
Cancer cells at this stage spread to neighboring areas of the skin, as well as regional lymph nodes. In patients, bleeding may occur, up to the development of bleeding, as well as soreness.
IV stage of colorless melanoma is metastasis of the tumor. Cancer cells spread to such important organs as the brain, liver, stomach, etc. At this stage, the probability of a lethal outcome is almost 100%.
How to recognize colorless melanoma in the early stages?
The main features include the change in such parameters of the neoplasm:
The development of these signs can last a long period of time (from several weeks to several months).
The earliest symptoms signaling the presence of a dangerous ailment are such signs:
- the appearance of pain in the mole;
- the spot thickens and rises above the skin;
- the appearance of unpleasant burning;
- the appearance of excreta;
- hyperemia and swelling of nearby tissues;
- ulceration of the neoplasm;
- the mole becomes soft.
What is included in the diagnosis?
Oncologist during visual inspection draws attention to the following parameters:
- the form;
Diagnosis includes the collection of patient complaints, blood and urine tests. Also, dermatoscopy, biopsy and histological examination of the affected tissues are carried out.
Treatment for today
The tactics of treatment are affected by two main points:
- size of education.
Surgical excision of the tumor with the capture of nearby healthy tissues is a reliable treatment of the problem and a good prevention of relapses.
There is a high probability that atypical cells have spread to regional lymph nodes, therefore, their resection is performed.
After surgery, radiation therapy is performed.
If, in view of concomitant pathologies in the late stages of development, surgical intervention is contraindicated, then immunotherapy is prescribed.
Alternatives to surgical treatment are such methods:
- Cryotherapy - the tumor is removed by liquid nitrogen.
- Photodynamic therapy - is the selective damage of atypical cells and the formation of a photo of necrosis, which later resolves.
Prognosis and survival
Early diagnosis and competent treatment is the key to success in any disease and colorless melanoma is no exception.
When the disease is detected in the first stages, in almost all cases, patients are safely cured.
If the pathology was detected late, that is, at the last stages, the patients live only a few years.
So,colorless melanomaIs a dangerous malignant tumor, which has deprived the lives of more than one person. Regularly undergo a test, do not self-medicate, and seek the help of qualified specialists in a specialized institution with the first suspicions of cancer!.