What does the cancer of the spleen look like?
The spleen plays an important role in the hematopoiesis system, forming the immune defense of the body.Cancer of the spleendevelops extremely rarely, especially as a primary oncological focus. More often it is affected by metastases of tumors of other organs.
Causes and risk factors for the development of spleen cancer
At present, the exact causes provoking malignant damage to the spleen have not yet been revealed. We can only identify some predisposing risk factors:
- genetic predisposition, which increases the risk of cancer of different localization;
- traumatic injury as a result of a fall or impact. As a result, the edema of the tissues begins, it is possible to form pathological foci with a changed structure;
- chronic inflammation;
- benign formations that gradually degenerate into malignant ones;
- secondary lesion, as a result of metastasis of tumors of other localization. It occurs most often.
The first signs of cancer of the spleen
It is not always possible to detect a malignant tumor at an early stage, because there are no specific symptoms that indicate an oncologic lesion.
Initially, there are signs of general intoxication, which may indicate a different pathology. So, it is noted:
- splenomegaly (an increase in the size of the spleen);
- subfebrile increase in temperature to 380C;
- discomfort, unpleasant or painful sensations in the area of the organ;
- heaviness in the left hypochondrium.
In laboratory tests, there is a decrease in the number of leukocytes, which can cause a decrease in the body's immune defense, and platelets with the development of coagulopathy (blood coagulation disorders).
As the malignant process progresses, the pallor of the skin, the symptoms of exhaustion (weight loss, lack of appetite, weakness), pain syndrome increases with irradiation in the left shoulder, lumbar region.
How to recognize the cancer of the spleen?
Malignant tissue degeneration occurs in stages 2-3, and it is not always easy to differentiate between benign origin and cancer.
The progression of the disease is characterized by pronounced pain sensations of a cutting nature in the splenic zone. Dense sweating worries against a background of fever without any apparent cause.
Depending on the aggressiveness of the disease, a complication such as rupture of the spleen may subsequently develop, therefore, when the first signs appear, it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately.
In addition, the tumor can disintegrate with the appearance of signs of severe intoxication, febrile fever temperature up to 390С), loss of weight (up to cachexia), weakness, development of ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity).
What is included in the diagnosis?
The development of an ailment begins secretly or has symptoms that a person does not attach much importance to. As the organ increases, the intensity of clinical symptoms increases, resulting in the patient turning to the doctor.
After analyzing the complaints, having collected an anamnesis of their appearance, the doctor conducts an objective examination, in which he finds splenomegaly when probing the abdomen.
Then, in order to confirm the diagnosis,Ultrasoundorgans of the abdominal cavity. Based on the results, you can suspect the presence of a malignant focus, but not always.
An additional method of visualization of pathological neoplasms isCT scan. It provides an opportunity to assess the localization, tumor volume and the state of surrounding structures. In addition, the body is simultaneously examined for metastasis to other organs, or vice versa, the primary malignant focus is detected, the metastases of which affect the spleen.
You can also runmagnetic resonance imaging. Malignant education differs from benign with its stony density, tuberous surface, adhesion with neighboring organs with the formation of a conglomerate, as well as regional damage lymph nodes.
If there is any doubt in the diagnosis,differential diagnostics. It requires the performance of pyelography, cystoscopy to exclude the involvement of the urinary system in the process.
X-ray examinationwith contrast gives the opportunity to examine the gastrointestinal tract for its damage.
Oflaboratory diagnosticsit is necessary to isolate a blood test in which anemia (low red blood cells, hemoglobin), leukopenia (decrease in the number of leukocytes) and thrombocytopenia (a lack of platelets) is observed.
Complication of pancytopenia is a decrease in the level of immune defense of the body, as a consequence - exacerbation of a chronic infection and the addition of a new one. Anemia leads to hypoxia of the organs, especially the brain, which is manifested by dizziness, loss of consciousness, weakness, pallor of the skin.
As for the lack of platelets, this leads to coagulopathy (the pathology of the coagulation system). There is increased bleeding during menstruation in women, damage to the skin or mucous membranes.
To confirm the diagnosis of a malignant tumor,histological examination. The method of puncture takes the material, and examines its cellular composition (biopsy).
Modern treatment of spleen cancer
After conducting a complete diagnosis and setting the final diagnosis, a therapeutic tactic is determined. It depends on the stage of the disease, the size of the tumor, its origin and the damage to other organs.
The volume of surgical intervention can be expressed both in resection of the spleen (partial removal) and in splenectomy, which is performed more often to prevent repeated lesions. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy courses are also conducted to prevent metastasis.
The effectiveness of treatment depends on the presence of concomitant pathology and general health, because chemotherapy drugs are heavily carried by a person.
Prognosis of the disease
It is worth noting that a full recovery is observed in 80% of cases when cancer is detected in 1-2 stages. As for more neglected forms, thanks to surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, it is possible to achieve stable remission and prevent the spread of metastases.
At 4 stages the prognosis is unfavorable, since other organs with the development of polyorganic insufficiency are involved in the oncological process.
Do not wait for the development of serious complications, it is necessary to contact the doctor in a timely manner, becausecancer of the spleencan be cured without allowing a lethal outcome..