Leiomyoma of the stomach - prognosis
Leiomyoma of the stomach is a benign neoplasm that develops from the smooth muscles of the gastric wall. Such a tumor can also form in other organs, where there is a smooth-muscle type of fibers (thick and small intestine, esophagus, uterus). Diagnosis of the disease is hindered by the asymptomatic course of the pathology.
Epidemiology of the disease
According to statistical data,leiomyomais quite rare oncology. Among all diagnosed smooth muscle tumors, leiomyomontal lesion of the stomach occurs in 2% of cases. People who are more than 60 years old are more prone to this pathology.
Benign neoplasm of the stomach has the appearance of single nodes and is equally localized in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
The causes of the development of stomach leiomyoma are still not established, but experts distinguish among the following risk factors:
- Ionizing radiation of the body and radiation therapy.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Chronic inflammatory and ulcerative diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions of human habitation.
- Exposure to toxic substances.
- The use of carcinogenic food additives.
Symptoms of stomach leiomyoma
Benign smooth muscle tumors often occur painlessly and asymptomatically. In most cases, the definition of leiomyoma occurs randomly when examining an adjacent pathology. Some patients can still feel pain after a regular meal and chronic nausea.
The clinical picture of the disease is formed depending on the location of the tumor:
- The output part of the stomach - manifestations of violations of the patency of the food canal in the form of an early sensation of overfilling of the stomach and vomiting.
- The cardiac part is dysphagia.
- Ulceration of the leiomyoma is characterized by pain syndrome, which manifests itself in 30-45 minutes. after eating.
Ulcerative changes in leiomyoma provoke periodic bleeding. In such patients, melena (emetic masses of "coffee grounds" color) is observed against the background of iron deficiency anemia.
Modern diagnostics of gastric leiomyoma
The small size of the tumor does not make it possible to palpate it. During the diagnosis, doctors use only instrumental techniques:
On the X-ray image pathology is defined as a small defect. This study provides an opportunity to assess the location and shape of the leiomyoma.
Visual inspection of the surface of the mucosa is performed using a special optical device. The doctor may suspect the presence of a tumor on a rounded swelling against the background of the unchanged gastric wall.
- CT scan:
It is the most informative diagnostic method. During the procedure, the patient is subjected to a layer scan of the affected organ.
The establishment of a definitive diagnosis is possible only on the basis of histological and cytological analysis of a small area of mutated tissue. The biopsy specimen is taken during gastroduodenoscopy.
Treatment of stomach leiomyoma
A key method of therapy of neoplasm of the muscular wall of the stomach is a surgical operation. The amount of surgical intervention is determined depending on the size and location of the tumor.
The tumor, the size of which does not exceed 3 cm, undergoes a local removal with the maximum possible preservation of healthy gastric tissues. A gentle operation is performed by cryodestruction, which involves excision of mutated cells using ultra-low temperatures.
A tumor exceeding 3 cm in diameter should be removed by the method of cavitary excision, in which the tumor is withdrawn together with part of the stomach. Such intervention by modern standards is performed by laparoscopic method. The patient undergoes general anesthesia. After this, several point incisions are made in the region of the anterior abdominal wall. A microsurgical instrument and an optical device are inserted into the holes formed. The main advantage of this method is low traumatism and high accuracy of tumor removal.
Neoplasm of considerable size is excised by the method of resection. Leiomyoma of the stomach, whose treatment included removal of the organ, usually does not form a relapse in the future.
The danger of timely treatment not carried out is the high probability of a cancerous transformation of the leiomyoma, which in this case becomes a leiomyosarcoma. Malignant neoplasm under such conditions begins to grow actively, destroying nearby tissues. Also, a cancerous tumor stimulates the formation of secondary oncologic foci.
after surgery, in general, have a favorable outcome of treatment. The indicator of postoperative survival is directly dependent on early diagnosis and timely treatment.
In most clinical cases, the diagnosis of gastric leiomyoma is at a late stage, when the tumor has spread to the entire surface of the stomach. In this regard, the average five-year survival rate is 30-50%.
Prevention of leiomyoma
Timely early diagnosis of cancer and neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract is carried out during annual preventive examinations of people over the age of 60 years. Also, the initial means of preventing gastric oncology include healthy nutrition and the rejection of bad habits.
Patients should remember thatgastric leiomyomais a benign neoplasm at the initial stage of its growth. Therefore, timely treatment for specialized medical care can save a patient's life..