Nose cancer - symptoms
Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a malignant lesion of epithelial, cartilaginous, bony and connective tissue cells of the nasal region. Such neoplasms are characterized by atypical and uncontrolled growth of pathological tissue, which penetrates into adjacent structures and forms metastases.Cancer of the nosemost common in older men.
Nose cancer and its causes
In the processes of formation of cancer of the nasal tissues, the following factors play an important role:
- Chronic inflammatory-destructive processes of the nasal and maxillary cavities (polyps, sinusitis).
- The presence of benign neoplasms capable of cancerous degeneration.
- Conditions of robots in the presence of carcinogenic substances.
- Acute traumatic damage to the bony structures of the facial region.
- Alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking.
Nose cancer: symptoms and signs of disease
Cancer of the nose, as a rule, begins with insignificant at first glance manifestations in the form of chronic nasal obstruction, followed by the formation of purulent discharge. The degree of overlapping of the lumen of the airways depends on the localization of the malignant process. Nose cancer, which occurs in the lower part of the septum, manifests itself in the early stages of the symptom of the obstruction of the nasal passage. The pathology of the upper region of the nasal concha causes discomfort and pain only at a late stage of growth.
Nose cancer, symptomswhich indicate the 3-4 stage, is also accompanied by reactive bleeding. The larger the swelling in the nose, the more intense and frequent the spotting from the nose. Often, the cancer process of the nasal cavity provokes a purulent inflammation of the middle ear and Eustachian tube.
Also, the symptoms of nasal cancer include attacks of sharp pain in the facial area and a painful type of migraine.
Cancer of the sinuses of the nose: symptoms
In addition to the general manifestations of nasal cavity cancer, malignant neoplasms of the maxillary sinus in most cases cause pain at an early stage of development. As a result of the growth of the tumor into the alveolar process of the upper jaw, softening of the hard palate is observed in patients with the formation of protrusion of the mucous membrane. The growth of the pathological tissue towards the orbit is clinically manifested by deformation of the lower internal wall.
Cancer of the sinus of the nose when spreading to the area of the chewing muscles causes a pathological contract (disruption of the upper and lower jaw closure).
Diagnosis of nasal cancer and sinuses of the nasal cavity
The primary definition of malignant nasal tissue damage is performed by an otolaryngologist who, during visual inspection can detect a polypous growth of the mucosa with bleeding or purulent surface. Suspicion ofnasal canceris an indication for an urgent consultation with an oncologist.
Diagnosis of nose cancer consists of the following stages:
- Examination of nasal passages and sinuses with the help of a special magnifying device.
- General blood test and determination of the level of oncomarkers.
- Radiology. This study includes X-ray irradiation with a study of the image in the lateral and direct projection. The cancerous tumor manifests itself in the form of an eclipse focus with uneven edges. Radiographic examination determines the organization and spread of a cancerous tumor.
- Computer and magnetic resonance imaging, which by means of digital processing of results research allows you to accurately determine the structure and location of malignant neoplasms.
- Biopsy is the most accurate way to establish a definitive diagnosis. This technique consists in puncture the fence of a small area of the affected tissue and carry out a histological and cytological analysis of the biological material. Biopsy determines the tissue belonging to cancer and the stage of development of oncology.
Methods of treatment of malignant neoplasms of the nose
The initial stages of cancer of the nose are subjected to combined treatment, which consists in carrying out a surgical operation followed by irradiation of the cancer. Operative intervention includes the complete removal of pathological tissues. After the operation, the zone of malignant growth is affected by high activity X-rays.
Detection of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes is considered a direct indication for their radical excision together with near-node cellulose.
In the case of the germination of a cancerous tumor into the base of the skull, it is practically impossible to remove the malignant tissue. Therefore, the therapy of this form of cancer implies intensive radiation therapy in combination with local application of cytostatic agents and oncopic drugs. Chemotherapy is aimed at the destruction of mutated cells with the help of pharmaceuticals.
When involved in the cancerous tissue process of the orbit or hard palate, the possibility of radical tumor removal remains. After such surgical intervention, patients, as a rule, require a plastic surgery to restore the defect of bone tissue.
Prognosis of nose cancer
The result of anticancer therapy in most cases is positive. Thus, the percentage of postoperative survival with a diagnosis of "nose cancer" is 40-70%.
The prognosis of nasal cavity cancer largely depends on the stage of the lesion. In the first stage, in almost 100% of patients with cancer, complete recovery occurs. The outcome of oncology of the nose in the last stages with the formation of multiple metastases in regional lymph nodes is deteriorating. According to statistical data, the patient's postoperative survival at 4 stages does not exceed 10%, so it is so important to diagnosenasal cancerand hissymptomsas soon as possible.
It should be noted that patients after a surgical operation are recommended to come regular preventive examinations..