Stomach cancer in women
Cancer of the stomach is a malignant neoplasm, which is the result of genetic changes in the tissues of the gastric mucosa. Cancer damage to the digestive system is currently considered the second leading cause of death in cancer patients after lung cancer. Scientific research in recent years has established that most of the stomach tumors are localized in epigastrium.
Causes of stomach cancer
The causes of cancer of the stomach in scientific circles are still being discussed. Only a few risk factors are known to medicine:
- Genetic predisposition. The risk of the disease is increased by the presence of oncology in the direct relatives of the patient;
- Excessive amounts of fat in the daily diet;
- Harmful habits and alcohol abuse;
- Chronic inflammatory processes of the gastric mucosa, which are provoked by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori;
- Most often malignant process affects women at the age of 40 - 60 years.
Symptoms of stomach cancer in women
Specific cancer symptoms are causeless weight loss, a feeling of overflow of bloating, even after taking a small amount of food.
Stomach cancer in womencan cause heartburn and dyspepsia, but such symptoms are rare enough. If the tumor partially blocks the lumen of the digestive canal, then the patients complain of vomiting and the inability to consume a standard amount of food.
Women with a malignant lesion of the gastric tissues can feel the so-called lump in the upper abdomen, just below the sternum.
Gastric cancer often progresses very slowly and the growth process is asymptomatic. In most cases, a malignant tumor is diagnosed after the tumor has left the body, for example, the liver. In this case, the clinical picture becomes similar to liver cancer and includes such symptoms:
- Frequent internal bleeding.
- Determination of blood in vomit.
- Isolation of dark as resin color from the anus.
Diagnosis of stomach cancer in women
Diagnosis of malignant neoplasms deals with oncologist and gastroenterologist, who use such basic methods of diagnosis:
- Contrast radiography. The procedure is as follows:
- Before the examination, the patient absorbs a special liquid with added barium;
- A series of X-ray photographs is performed, on which the contours and structure of pathological tissues are clearly identified.
- Gastroscopy. After finding subjective complaints, the doctor, in most cases, conducts gastroscopy. The procedure is performed using a gastroscope (a tool consisting of a thin rubber tube with a fixed video camera). For the convenience of diagnosis, the resulting image of the inner wall of the stomach is displayed on the monitor screen. During the gastroscopy, if there is a suspicion of a malignant process, the gastroenterologist will take biological material.
- Biopsy is a method of laboratory analysis of a part of the pathological focus for the detection of tissue belonging to cancer cells.
Stages of stomach cancer
- Zero stage of the disease:
In the surface spheres of the gastric epithelium, single atypical cells are determined, from which tumor tissue may form in the future.
- The first stage:
Malignant neoplasm is located in the epithelium of the mucosa (1a). The tumor extends beyond the surface of the stomach and affects the lymph nodes (1c).
- The second stage:
The cancerous process is localized in virtually all spheres of the gastric tissue, but does not extend to the lymphoid tissue.
- The third stage:
The tumor is determined in the epithelial, muscular and serous layer of the stomach. Mutated cells are also found in regional lymph nodes.
- Fourth stage:
The cancer tumor is not only in the stomach part, but also in the neighboring tissues and lymphatic system of the digestive tract.
Treatment of stomach cancer in women
The most effective way to treat cancer of the stomach in women is considered a surgical operation. Cancer, operated at an early stage, provides a 30% survival rate. The higher the rates of early diagnosis, the higher the chances of patients to complete recovery and return to normal life.
Operative intervention is carried out using the following operations:
- Distal resection of the stomach.
The operation involves partial removal of stomach tissues, which are located in the distant parts of the organ. The possibility of carrying out this type of surgery involves an early stage of the disease and a distal tumor localization.
- Proximal resection.
Surgical intervention to remove the central part of the stomach with malignant neoplasm.
Cancer in womenin the third and fourth stages are subjected to radical removal, in which the whole stomach is excised and anastomosis (connection) between the esophagus and the intestine is formed. This type of operation requires a long period of rehabilitation with the subsequent intake of vitamins B on a permanent basis..