Oncomarkers of the stomach
Molecules of tumor markers that are in the circulatory system indicate a cancerous lesion.ABOUTgastric markersin medical practice are used to identify malignant neoplasms and to assess the nature of the clinical course of gastric oncology. The ideal marker after a positive blood test is determined only in cancer patients with a specific oncological pathology. Unfortunately, this does not happen. Most biologically active substances signal many diseases and can be diagnosed in absolutely healthy patients.
Purpose of the study
This analysis is aimed at solving four main problems:
- Early diagnosis of cancer in a healthy population or among a population at high risk of cancer.
- Establishment of a cancer diagnosis and nosological group of the disease.
- Prognosis of anticancer therapy.
- Monitoring of the general condition of the patient during remission, radical intervention, chemotherapy or radiation exposure.
Oncomarkers of the stomach: which ones to take?
- Carcinoembryonic antigen:
It is a protein found in many types of cells. CEA was one of the first oncological antigens used in clinical practice. This glycoprotein is included in the structure of the membranes of tumor cells. The growth of malignant neoplasm is accompanied by the release of an increased amount of this substance into the circulatory system.
- Alpha Fetoprotein:
It is a whey protein of the fetus, which is synthesized by the liver, gall bladder and mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. The maximum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein is reached at week 12 of pregnancy. After birth, this element is excreted from the body. Half-life becomes, day.
- CA 19-9:
A monoclonal antibody that is predominantly generated in the colon cancer cell. Often, this marker also signals gastric adenocarcinoma. It was found that an increased concentration of Ca 19-9 in patients with gastric cancer (21-42%), colon cancer (20-40%) and pancreatic neoplasms (71-93). Recently, active research has been carried out to use this technique to differentiate the benign and malignant process of the gastrointestinal tract.
- CA 72-4:
The structural element of the epithelium, which is synthesized by the cells of the gastrointestinal tract in the embryonic stage. This glycoprotein is concentrated in the human circulatory system with some cancers of the lungs, stomach, breast, ovaries and pancreas.
Unfortunately, scientists have not found the ideal marker for carrying out an early diagnosis of stomach cancer. All screening surveys require an integrated approach to solving the problem. Oncological vigilance forms a positive result of several types of tests. Most of these techniques in cancer practice are used to monitor the effectiveness of anticancer therapy. In this case, oncologists need to take tests every two weeks. Also, the analysis on oncomarkers is able to predict the development of secondary oncology long before the onset of clinical symptoms.
What non-cancer diseases can cause an increase in the indicators of oncomarkers?
ABOUTnarkomker sa stomachincreases with the following systemic pathologies:
- Benign gastric neoplasms, peptic ulcer, gastro-reflux condition and polyps of multiple nature.
- Diseases of the pancreas in the form of cystic lesions, chronic or acute inflammation of the pancreatic tissue.
- Intestinal pathologies: mucosal polyps, acute and ulcerative colitis.
- Atrophic and dystrophic changes in the liver (cirrhosis).
- Inflammatory-allergic disorders of the respiratory system.
How correctly to hand over oncomarkers on a cancer of a stomach?
For the reliability of the diagnostic test oncologists should adhere to the following conditions:
- The analysis of venous blood passes exclusively on an empty stomach.
- Before testing, the patient should refrain from drinking carbonated water, sharp and salty foods and smoking.
- Drug therapy is stopped 24 hours before the procedure.
- It is desirable to pass the diagnosis several times in the same laboratory.
- The effectiveness of the method increases with the simultaneous analysis of several types of tumor markers.
- In each clinical case, the establishment of a final diagnosis requires radiography, ultrasound and biopsy.
Physiologically normal indicators are:
- Carcino-embryonic antigen - from 0 to 5 ng / ml.
- Alpha-fetoprotein-up to 15 ng / ml or up to 10 international units.
- Ca 19-9 to 40 IU / ml.
- Ca 72-4-from 0 to, IU / ml.
The cost of sampling and analysis of biological material can range from US $ 10 to US $ 20. The price of the procedure depends on the level of the histological laboratory and the urgency of the study. In this case, it is necessary to take into account that the price-list of medical services is made for each individual oncomarker and diagnostics, as a rule, specialists are appointed to pass in several stages.
Oncomarkers of the stomachhave a high potential as a way to control the results of radiation and chemotherapy. After a radical intervention, these substances are used for the timely detection of relapses. Early diagnosis of tumor markers requires careful examination by instrumental and hardware techniques..