Hereditary cancer of the stomach
The designation of the genetic nature of cancer has been reliably confirmed by modern research. It is known that the main cause of oncology is the DNA mutation. Mutating cells are capable of cloning and uncontrolled reproduction. The most common cancers in Russia are tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. One of them ishereditary stomach cancer.
For your own safety, everyone should become familiar with the causes, symptoms and basic rules of disease prevention. This is the only way to completely cure or prevent the development of a dangerous disease.
Is stomach cancer transmitted by inheritance?
Cancer of the stomach (RJ) is transmitted hereditarily to 4 patients out of 10. Until the 1980s, RJ was on the first place in the structure of cancer incidence in Russia. Recently, statistics have been decreasing. Despite the decrease in the number of patients, the ailment remains one of the most important problems of medicine. Gastric cancer takes 2nd place, second only to oncology of the lungs in men, and breast cancer in women. Men tend to form in the stomach 2 times more often, unlike the opposite sex.
Hereditary causes of stomach cancer
World medicine and specialists in the field of genetics have not yet determined the exact cause of heredity of cancer tumors in the stomach. It is well known that the cancer begins its development due to changes in the structure of DNA. Cells mutate, continue to grow and multiply, forming a malignant tumor.
Since the true causes of gene mutation are unknown, numerous studies have given physicians the opportunity to identify only the prospective factors affecting the development of cancer. Of these, the most basic:
- Floor. Men suffer from this disease more often than women. The reasons are not established.
- Age. Older people are sick with oncology more often. Patients from 55 to 70 years old are at risk.
- Incorrect food. In lovers of acute, salty food, the risk to oncology grows 2 times. The same applies to receivers of smoked meats, pickles, dishes with a lot of seasonings and spices.
- Smoking. Each smoker uncontrollably swallows a small amount of smoke that enters the stomach. Tobacco oils can destroy the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Damaged mucosa has a predisposition to mutation of cells, that is - to the development of the tumor.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with diseases of the stomach, such as an ulcer or gastritis, are predisposed to the disease in 2 times more.
- Other oncological diseases. The likelihood of a gastric tumor increases if the patient had previously had other formations. In women, it is cancer of the breast, cervix, or ovaries. In men, cancer of the colon, prostate, or bladder.
Another hereditary factor is the blood group. Because it is transmitted from parents, this fact is also considered a genetic predisposition. People with the first blood group and positive rhesus - are ill with stomach cancer more often than those with other blood groups.
What are hereditary forms of stomach cancer?
Depending on the macroscopic picture, there are such forms of hereditary cancer of the stomach:
Most often, polypoid cancer begins with adenomatous polyps, which were not diagnosed before.
The tumor has the shape of a saucer. It does not affect the submucosal layer, it does not have a pronounced clinical picture, therefore it is difficult to diagnose.
This form of cancer is the most tricky one. Often, it is found only in later stages, since the tumor is similar to ulcerative formation on the wall of the stomach.
Has the form of cauliflower. The growth of this type of tumor is directed into the lumen of the digestive organ.
This type of education grows inside the stomach wall, so it is difficult to detect.
Infiltrative - ulcerative:
This type of cancer quickly gives metastases, so it is considered the most dangerous. The whole thickness of the walls of the stomach is affected, over which ulcerous growths develop. In most cases this form is the subsequent stage of saucer-like and diffuse forms.
Depending on the symptomatology, the inherited stomach cancer is divided into the following forms:
- Painful (the main symptom are severe pain).
- Dyspeptic (manifested by swelling and heaviness in the abdomen, nausea and aversion to food).
- Feverish (has no other symptoms, except for high body temperature (up to 40 degrees)).
- Anemic (sharply reduced body weight).
- Hemorrhagic (due to premature destruction of the tumor, there are gastric bleeding).
Several years ago, genetics had another form of hereditary stomach cancer - intestinal. Tumors of this form are detected with mutations that initially caused breast or ovarian cancer. The risk of disease with a mutation of such a gene is 60%.
How often does hereditary cancer of the stomach occur and who is at risk?
In 2002, about 4, 00 people were diagnosed with this type of cancer in Russia. About half of the people out of this number, the ailment was due to hereditary factors. Diagnosis of education in the stomach is a rather complicated process, because often - the tumor does not make itself felt for a long time. The most important thing in this case is to find cancer in time.
In order to study the heredity of stomach cancer, each onco-clinic has separate statistics. According to its results, it is known that the disease is transmitted only from the closest relatives. For example, from mother or father to children, or from grandparents to grandchildren. Heredity in the third generation is very rare.
How is hereditary cancer of the stomach determined today?
If you find the slightest symptoms of stomach problems, it is recommended that you visit the health facility. After the examination, the doctor can give directions for the delivery of tests and instrumental methods of examination:
Through the throat, a gastroscope is inserted into the patient's stomach. During the procedure, the doctor can see the organs' walls on the monitor screen. This type of diagnosis is available and effective.
This examination is a complex of measures aimed at diagnosing cancer tumors at an early stage. Most often, screening is suitable for patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases.
For the analysis of biopsy, a small amount of tissue is taken from the site of the alleged malignant formation. Then - laboratory tests are carried out.
X-ray makes it possible to determine the localization of the tumor and its size. Also - view outlines, which allows you to establish the stage and extent of the defeat.
In some cases, for example, in repeated studies, other types of diagnostics can be prescribed: computed tomography, endoscopy or laparoscopy.
What is the genetic test for stomach cancer?
Genetic analysis for gastric oncology is given to identify clones of the mutating gene. For this, the patient needs to take venous blood. This procedure should be performed on an empty stomach or 8 hours after eating. Mutations in the MLH1 and CDH1 genes are considered to be the main signs of the development of hereditary disease.
The results of the analysis make it possible to diagnose the disease at the earliest stage. This contributes to successful treatment and (almost always) complete recovery.
What if the tests confirmed the predisposition to hereditary cancer?
Detection of mutating genes does not give a 100% chance of cancer, but allows you to take the necessary measures in time. A patient with suspected cancer should be constantly monitored by an oncologist. A specialist's task is to develop an individual method of treatment and prevention of tumor development. In such a situation, the patient should strictly adhere to the recommendations of doctors, follow all the instructions for diet and taking medications. According to statistics, about 95% of patients who on time turned to a doctor and underwent proper treatment, get rid of gastric cancer completely and lead a full-fledged lifestyle.
What is the tactic of observing healthy carriers of hereditary mutations?
In clinical genetics, there are many approaches to observing carriers of gene mutations. Each patient has its own method of testing and diagnosis. It depends on the age, gender and general health of a person. The basic rule for such people is the mandatory annual passage of computer diagnostics.
Periodic examinations are carried out for the purpose of maintaining statistics of carriers of the pathological genotype. All information about such patients is kept secret, in connection with legal and moral and ethical aspects.
Important recommendations for carriers of genes with a mutation
The main concern for the carrier of oncology is the birth of a child. This also applies to families in which at least one parent has a risk of transmitting disease to his offspring. Modern technologies allow to determine the presence or absence of a mutation already at the first stages of pregnancy. For this, the mother needs to undergo an ultrasound examination and donate blood. The results of the analyzes are very likely true.
For carriers of this disease, there is a special diet, as well as drugs against activation of the mutating process. All these recommendations for each patient are appointed by the oncologist individually.
Despite the difficulties in diagnosing and detecting gene mutations,hereditary stomach canceris not a verdict. The possibilities of modern medicine can detect ailment at the earliest stages of development. Most importantly, in the presence of the slightest symptoms - contact a specialist and take a survey. Qualitative treatment makes it possible not only to improve the condition of the patient, but also completely cure the disease..