Neoplasm of the adrenal glands, corticosteroma is a tumor that provokes excessive cortisol release, which is manifested by the formation of the Itenko-Cushing syndrome.
Features of the tumor
This pathology, mainly, develops on one of the adrenal glands. A benign neoplasm may have a size of 1 to 15 cm and a weight of 2 to 200 grams. It, as a rule, consists in a dense connective tissue capsule.
The malignant focus of the mutation consists of an atypical, tuberous tissue, which is abundantly bloodied and includes separate foci of necrosis. For such a process, hematogenous and lymphogenic metastasis is characteristic. Metastases at the same time retain the ability to produce cortisol.
The most dangerous for the patient's life is a malignant variant of corticosteroma, which causes cancer intoxication, metastasis and cancerous cachexia.
To date, a reliable cause of development of corticosteroma is unknown. Many experts are inclined to think about the carcinogenic role of the following factors:
- genetic predisposition;
- pollution of the environment;
- aggressive influence of medicinal medicines.
Symptoms and signs of corticosteroma
The early manifestations of adrenal cancer include:
- Persistent hypertension.
- Periodic attacks of headache.
- Change in the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Gradually, the following clinical picture is formed in patients:
- The formation of small subcutaneous hemorrhages in the chest and thighs.
- Purulent rashes on the skin.
- Ulcerations and areas of increased pigmentation of the epidermis can form on the lower extremities.
- For female patients, the presence of facial hair, the change in the timbre of the voice is characteristic.
- Men can note atrophy of testicles and lack of libido.
In the overwhelming majority of cancer patients in later stages, calcium ions are washed out of the bone tissue, which is manifested by abnormal fractures of the ribs and spine.
Analyzes and examinations
Patients with a suspicion of cancer of the adrenal glands, doctors in the first place are recommended to do a blood test to determine the level of corticosteroid hormones.
To visualize the pathological focus specialists resort to ultrasound examination, computer and magnetic resonance imaging. Clarification of the oncological diagnosis requires consultation of related specialists (cardiologist, urologist, gynecologist).
Treatment of corticosteroids
The only way to treat adrenal neoplasm is surgery to remove the gland. Radical intervention is carried out by two main methods: open excision and endoscopic surgery.
In the postoperative period, patients are usually prescribed a course of hormone therapy, which ensures the stabilization of the hormonal background. In case of detection of metastases, the oncologist recommends the patient to undergo chemotherapy.
Relapse and prognosis with corticosteroid
A benign tumor of this localization has a favorable prognosis. Radical excision of the gland ends with a full recovery of the patient. In the post-operation period, the patient needs to make a hormonal adjustment. Subsequently, the people undergoing surgery note the normalization of blood pressure, the restoration of sexual function and the integrity of the skin.
Malignantcorticosteromaproceeds unfavorably. The consequence of active tumor metastasis is a high mortality rate of patients. Even the timely conduct of a surgical operation does not guarantee the survival of the patient..