What does the sarcoma of the skin look like?
Neoplasm, which occurs in soft tissues and is detected in the surface layers of the epidermis, is calledsarcoma of the skin. This is a common name for tumors that consist of connective cells. They contain fat, muscle, nerves, fibrous structures, blood vessels, etc.
Skin sarcoma can occur in any part of the body, but is usually located on the hands and feet. This formation is difficult to detect, which aggravates the timeliness of treatment and the overall disease prognosis for the patient. Only 50% of cutaneous sarcomas occur in the initial stages. About 1% of all cases occur in adults and 15-20% are diagnosed in children.
Types of sarcomas
Sarcoma has so many types, but the main ones are:
- Adult and children's fibrosarcoma affects the fibrous tissue.
- Alveolar soft form.
- Kaposi's sarcoma is revealed on the skin.
- Angiosarcoma develops from the blood or lymphatic vessels.
- Dermatofibrosarcoma occurs in the deep layers of skin tissue and penetrates into the surrounding fat, muscles and even bone.
- The clear-celled form is sometimes misunderstood for melanoma.
- A desmoplastic small tumor around the cells occurs in adults.
- Epithelioid sarcomas develop under the skin of the hands, forearms, and legs.
- The subfebrile type is characterized by a slow painless growth.
- The undifferentiated pleomorphic oncological tumor tends to occur in the elderly.
Sarkoma Skin - photo:
What does the sarcoma of the skin look like?
At the initial stages of growth of the sarcoma of the skin, it does not look much different from other skin tumors. The main features are:
- many types have the appearance of blue, red, purple and black spots, which are initially perceived as bruises;
- the surface of the spot rises above the skin a few millimeters and is prone to bleeding;
- can start from a small area (approximately from 1 cm to 5 cm);
- sometimes "tentacles" of malignant formation are found under the microscope, which spread to other structures;
- the content of pigment areas that include different colors - from red to brown.
Symptoms and how to recognize
A person should pay attention to such conditions:
- the appearance of any stain on the body, which is different in color, structure and general appearance (rough or ulcerous surface);
- consolidation, which gradually increases;
- with time, it begins to bleed;
- weight does not always cause discomfort or pain;
- top layer hard, wrinkled, flat or raised;
- number both plural and single. In some patients, education takes up a large area of the body;
- a nearby area may be swollen;
- Redness is observed only in 15% of cases.
To determine the exact subtype of a cancer tumor, doctors use three types of biopsy:
- Incentive: a one-time removal of a part of the tumor, which causes suspicion.
- Basic: foresees removal of a tissue sample with a wide needle.
- Excision: the entire area is cut off, which looks abnormal.
What is skin sarcoma, its exact subspecies and propensity to spread, will be accurately established after a histological analysis under a microscope. To do this, the expert will perform a series of tests and tests:
- Immunohistochemical: based on the use of antibodies and antigen testing. The antibody binds to the radioactive substance or dye, demonstrating the difference in the cells.
- Light and electron microscopy looks for certain changes in the samples.
- Cytogenetic analysis determines changes in chromosomes.
- Fluorescence can detect abnormalities in DNA fragments. Under the influence of genes they light up.
- Flow cytometry measures the number and percentage of living elements, and also determines their size, shape and presence of oncomarkers on the cell surface. For this, the withdrawn samples are stained with a special photosensitive dye, placed in a liquid and brought to a laser or other source of light emission.
Visualization study is necessary only to determine the level of oncology expansion.
Stages of cutaneous sarcoma
Stage Iis divided into sub-stages IA and IB:
- In period IA a low-grade slowly growing tumor is present, not exceeding 5 cm. This can be either a superficial formation (localized directly in the subcutaneous area, without muscle damage), or deep (penetrating below).
- IB: the neoplasm has all the characteristics indicated, but its size exceeds 5 cm.
- IIA: the formation of medium quality or full, that is, inclined to rapid metastasis. It is characterized by a size of 5 cm and affects the subcutaneous cover differently.
- II B: seal more than 5 cm.
III stage: Cancer formation is determined by one of the following conditions:
- Full value, large size and deep expansion.
- Any variety, volume and distribution to nearby lymph nodes.
At the IV stage, the tumor metastasizes not only to neighboring sites, but also to distant ones.
Such standard therapeutic measures are used:
It is performed in one of the following ways:
- Microsurgery of Mohs- Gradual removal of visible lesions and examination under a microscope until there is only a healthy tissue left.
- Extensive excision- complete resection of abnormal site.
- Gentle method, in which the formation is removed on the arm or leg without amputation. Therefore, additional treatment is required.
- Lymphadenectomy: a surgical procedure for the removal of lymph nodes and their further investigation.
It is often used in conjunction with the surgical method to reduce malignant compaction and kill cancer cells.
Specializes in intravenous or oral use of drugs to manage the disease. Systemic administration ensures the delivery of medications through the bloodstream. Drugs are given by certain courses in a set period of time.
Sarkoma Skin, although a rare malignant disease, but very dangerous, therefore needs timely diagnosis..