Removal, surgery, prognosis for a stomach tumor
Operative treatment of neoplasm of the stomach is performed in patients who are able to tolerate general anesthesia, rather complicated operation and rehabilitation period. Therefore, the surgeon decides to remove the cancer of the stomach only after determining the general condition of the patient.
Unsupervised is consideredstomach cancerfor older patients who have diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous and endocrine systems. Diagnosis of a large number of metastases in the patient is also considered a contraindication to the surgical method of treatment.
Surgical methods of treatment of a tumor of the stomach
Depending on the location and prevalence of the pathological process, the following surgical options are used:
- Partial resection of the stomach
Partial removal of the organ is performed when the tumor is located in the lower part of the stomach or at the junction of the affected organ with the small intestine. The volume of tissues to be removed depends on the size of the lesion. During the operation, the surgeon also carves the lymph nodes around the stomach and part of the omentum.
As a result of partial resection, the stomach volume is significantly reduced in the patient. The positive aspect of this method is the preservation of the sphincter, which connects the esophagus and the stomach itself. As a result, a small scar is observed on the skin of the abdomen.
- General gastrectomy
Gastric Tumor, which arose in its central part, is removed together with the organ. This operation is called complete resection. During operation, the esophagus connects with the small intestine. The procedure of gastric removal is combined with resection of all lymph nodes located in this area. After a radical intervention on the abdomen remains a scar of considerable size.
- Laparoscopic operation of gastrectomy
Laparoscopic intervention is performed without a traditional cutaneous incision. The surgeon performs the operation with a special instrument (laparoscope), which penetrates the abdominal cavity. The laparoscope is connected to an external monitor, which enables the physician to visually monitor the operation. Through two small holes, a microsurgical instrument is brought to the affected area of the stomach, with the help of which a directremoval of a tumor of the stomach.
The positive side of this method is considered atraumatic procedure compared with conservative gastrectomy. Due to the small amount of surgical manipulation, the patient can move independently on the second day after the operation.
- Removal of the stomach and part of the esophagus
If the cancerous growth is in the upper part of the stomach, near the esophagus, then in such cases, surgeons recommend resection of the stomach with the adjacent part of the esophagus. During the operation, the lower gastric third is retained, which is converted into a tube and connected to the remaining part of the esophagus.
The operation to remove the stomach tumor is accompanied by excision of all the lymph nodes that are in the abdominal cavity and along the blood vessels that supply the stomach. Lymphodissection is carried out because the lymphoid organs can contain cancer cells that have disappeared from the underlying tumor. This procedure is quite effective in preventing relapse.
Features of nutrition after surgery
At first, after removing part of the stomach, doctors recommend eating small portions. After a few months, the patient can return to his normal diet, as the stomach tissues are stretched to the required size by this time.
If the surgery involved resection of a large part or whole of the stomach, the patient is recommended to adhere to a special diet for 3-6 months. In addition, throughout life, a person must be injected with vitamin B12 to prevent the development of blood anemia. Such surgical intervention is often accompanied by prolonged diarrhea in the postoperative period.
Complications after surgery to remove a tumor of the stomach
- A tumor in the stomach, surgery was surgically performed, it can resume after a short time. To prevent recurrence of the disease in some cases, oncologists are advised to conduct chemotherapy or to affect the operated part of the body with ionizing radiation.
- Occurrence of bleeding or damage to nearby organs. Such complication is not fatal and, in fact, during the operation can be eliminated by a qualified team of surgeons.
- Oncology of the stomachin the postoperative period may include side effects in the form of nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain. Attacks, mainly, are associated with a lack of vitamins. Hypovitaminosis is caused by a new anatomical structure of the digestive system. To remove discomfort in the postoperative period of time, the patient is given an injection course of vitamin therapy.