ChemodectomyIs an oncological lesion of the neck, in which the source of the tumor process is ganglionic tissue in the bifurcation of the carotid artery. This area is also called a sleepy node. Cervical ganglion receptors monitor blood pressure and the degree of oxygen saturation of the blood.
Causes of the disease
To date, a reliable cause of chemodectomy has not been established. Referring to the statistical data, scientists argue about the existence of a genetic predisposition to this type of oncology.
The disease in most cases is diagnosed in female patients. The chemodectomy predominantly proceeds in a benign variant. Malignant neoplasm is observed in about 10% of cancer patients.
Chemodectomy - Species
Oncology scientists in the course of clinical studies have established the following types of chemodectomy:
- Malignant neoplasm of carotid body. This type of tumor is most common.
- The chemodectomy of the vagus nerve.
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Each variant of the location of this tumor can also be benign and malignant, in which the tumor actively divides and forms metastatic foci along the lymphatic vessels.
Clinical observations indicate that one in five benignchemodectomydegenerates into a malignant one. This is especially dangerous for the patient's life.
Symptoms of chemodectomy
For this oncology, an extremely slow growth of the tumor is considered characteristic. Oncological patients usually consult a doctor after visual identification of the edema of the soft tissues of the neck in the area of the angle of the lower jaw. In this case, the tumor can reach a significant volume with irregular outlines. This new formation in most cases has a smooth surface. Palpation of the chemodectomy reveals a soft structure and transverse mobility of pathological tissues. The growth of the tumor can provoke the onset of pain syndrome, in which patients feel pain in the throat, ear or head region.
In rare cases, the chemodectomy, when pressed on the keratoid cavity, is manifested by the poverty of the skin, the causeless loss of consciousness and the drop in blood pressure.
Chemodectomyin the region of the vagus nerve is characterized by the following clinical picture:
- Finger pressure on the tumor causes a sharp attack of cough.
- Asymmetric position of the tongue.
- Atrophy of the muscular system on the side of the lesion.
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Diagnosis of chemodectomy
Diagnosis of chemodectomy is carried out by an oncologist together with a vascular surgeon. It is possible to suspect the presence of this malignant neoplasm according to the specific appearance of the patient and the localization of the tumor. Most patients with chemodectomy consult a doctor about swelling or chronic edema of the cervical region.
To confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy is necessary, in which the doctor punctures the small area of the modified tissue. Further investigation of the biological material is carried out under laboratory conditions. As a result of cytological and histological studies, the form and stage of cancer is determined.
An obligatory diagnostic measure for chemodectom is angiography. To do this, a contrast agent is injected into the bloodstream in the patient. Specialist on X-ray photography examines the location of the neoplasm with respect to the carotid artery and the number of arterial anastomoses.
How is chemodectomy treated today?
A key method of chemotherapy treatment is the surgical removal of the neoplasm. Difficulties of such an operative intervention are associated with a close location of the carotid artery, the damage of which is fraught with a severe violation of the cerebral blood supply. After the establishment of the final diagnosis"Chemodectomyoperationshould be conducted only by highly qualified specialists in the conditions of an oncological hospital.
Before surgical intervention, the patient is obliged to check the state of collateral cerebral blood supply with the help of the functional test "Matasu". The essence of the technique is the periodic artificial squeezing of the carotid aorta for a period of 2-5 seconds to 10-15 minutes. Such procedures are carried out for one week. The result of the study is assessed by the absence of dizziness and loss of consciousness in the patient.
In the process of an oncological operation, all pathologically altered tissues are subject to removal. If the tumor is benign in nature, then the ligation of blood vessels is not carried out. In the case of a malignant lesion, the oncologist often makes the decision to resect the carotid artery, which requires the plasticity of the cerebral vessels to restore the physiological blood flow.
According to statistical data, the death rate of cancer patients after excision of the artery is in the range of 10-15%.
Patients in choosing a method of treatment should take into account that radiotherapy and chemotherapy with chemodectom are ineffective and practically not applied.
Benign chemodectomy, as a rule, has a favorable prognosis. Recovering patients occurs in 95% of cases.
Malignant neoplasm of the cervical region is unfavorable. With such a defeat, most likely, unfortunately, the death of a patient with cancer.
The prediction of the results of surgical treatment also largely depends on the stage of diagnosis. But unfortunatelychemodectomymainly determined in the late stages of growth. This is due to the asymptomatic course of the early stage of this oncology. Even such methods of early cancer diagnosis as ultrasound and computed tomography are not able to identify in a timely manner the neoplasm of this localization..