Approximately 20% of cancer patients experience pathological changes in organs and systems remote from the primary cancer center. The clinical course of paraneoplastic syndrome (clinico-laboratory manifestation of malignant neoplasm) remains unclear. Many scientists believe that this pathology is the result of the effects of tumor-secreted substances or antibodies of one's own organism.
The development of paraneoplastic syndrome, as a rule, is associated with neoplasms of the following localization:
- Urinary system.
- Thoracic glands.
- Nervous system.
In such cases, the success of the treatment of the syndrome directly depends on the therapy of primary cancer.
Systemic paraneoplastic symptoms
Cancer patients very often experience chronic fever, sweating, anorexia - cachexia. These symptoms arise from such processes:
- Release of biologically active substances during the inflammatory and immune reaction of the body to the tumor.
- Isolation of toxic products after the melting of a cancer cell.
- Alpha-factor of necrosis of neoplasm.
- Dysfunction of the liver.
From the side of the skin, patients can complain:
- Itching. This is the most common symptom, which is considered a consequence of changes in the quantitative composition of the blood.
- Intensive night sweating.
- Pigmentary changes in the epidermis.
- Formation of the clinical picture of herpes zoster.
Endocrine paraneoplastic symptoms
In some cancer patients, the following symptoms are observed:
- Cushing's syndrome is an excess of cortisone (a thyroid hormone), which is clinically accompanied by hyperglycemia, hypertension and atypical obesity.
- Water-electrolytic imbalance.
- The increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, which is the result of excessive synthesis of insulin-like factors by mutated pancreatic cells.
- Hypertension, an increase in blood pressure is caused by an atypical release of adrenaline and norepinephrine into the circulatory system.
Manifestations from the digestive tract
Carcinoid tumors can excrete serotonin, which provokes, reddening of the skin, shortness of breath and stool disorders. Oncologists often complain about watery diarrhea.
In cancer patients, chronic anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and intravascular coagulation syndrome are often observed.
In cancer patients with cancerous lesions of the kidneys and the liver, doctors often diagnose erythrocytosis (atypical increase in the concentration of red blood cells).
Pathological states of the nervous system occur in several types of neuropathy:
- Peripheral - decreased motor activity, sensitivity, and disappearance of distal reflexes.
- Myelopathy, in which the patient loses sensory and motor functions.
- Encephalitis is a feeling of constant anxiety, depression, loss of memory and confusion.
Malignant neoplasms of the large intestine, ovaries and lymphatic system stimulate the formation of special immune complexes. Such substances can cause inflammation of the kidneys.
Rheumatological symptoms are manifested under the influence of autoimmune reactions and come in the following forms:
- Arthropathy or systemic arthrosis (dysfunction or inflammation of the joints) can accompany patients with tumors of the large intestine, pancreas and prostate gland.
- Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (painful swelling of the joints) is considered a typical disease of oncological pulmonary forms of carcinoma.
- Dermatomyositis is a progressive muscular weakness of the limbs, which is formed due to inflammation and necrosis of the muscles.Paraneoplastic syndromeIn this variant, it is mainly diagnosed in older people (over 50 years old).