Can an endometrial polyp go to cancer?
The increase in the thickness of the endometrium, that is, its hyperplasia, is considered a physiological process, when the influence of hormones, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, changes its consistency and value. However, under certain conditions this process is disrupted, and the endometrium undergoes hyperplasia, regardless of menstruation.Endometrial polyp- one of the forms of manifestation of hyperplastic changes in the inner layer of the uterus.
Polypoid outgrowths are formed due to hormonal imbalance caused by endocrine pathology (polycystic ovary, obesity, diabetes), exacerbation of inflammatory, infectious diseases of reproductive system organs, frequent abortions, complicated labor or traumatism with gynecological manipulations.
To date, polyps of the endometrium are among the most common gynecological pathologies. They are the outgrowths of the inner uterine layer. Only the decidual appearance of polypous formations during pregnancy is the norm, in other cases, when they are detected, it is necessary to start the medication in time or to remove them.
Often, such neoplasms are recorded in menopausal and reproductive years. Depending on the prevalence of polyposis (multiple lesions), the age of the patient and the availability of children, the method of their excision is chosen.
What is the danger of an endometrial polyp for the life and health of a woman?
In young girls, polypous foci can cause infertility, which is the reason for their treatment to the doctor. At the initial stage, polyps may not cause any clinical symptoms, but as their size or size increases, the risk of complications increases:
- violation of menstrual function in the form of abundant secretions and the appearance of intermenstrual blood loss;
- decreased libido, as a woman's intimacy brings painful sensations;
- the development of anemia (a decrease in hemoglobin and erythrocytes in the blood, which leads to dizziness, loss of consciousness, pale skin and constant weakness);
- malignancy, that is, the appearance of cancer cells;
- necrosis (death) of the polypous neoplasm due to the twisting of its pedicle and the lack of supply of nutrition and oxygen.
Can an endometrial polyp go to cancer?
Yes, it can, because polyps are considered a precancerous process. In this regard, it is necessary to diagnose the pathology in time and take measures (remove oncogenesis or medicate it). Regular examination and monitoring of the dynamics is required.
Factors and conditions conducive to cancer transformation
Malignant transformation is possible against the background of weakened immune defense of the body, uncontrolled endocrine pathology, reproductive organs diseases and imbalance of hormones.
As for the factors that provoke cancerous degeneration of cells, it is worth mentioning among them:
- violation of the integrity of education in the process of sexual intimacy, abortion, gynecological examination or other manipulations;
- frequent overheating in the sun, in the sauna or at the workplace (bakery, workshop, etc.);
- exacerbation of sexual infection;
- irradiation of the pelvic organs for other oncopathology;
- the spread of a malignant tumor from surrounding organs (ovaries, bladder).
Indications for removal
Medication (anti-inflammatory, hormonal) therapy is used if the growth hormone is sensitive. In other cases, it is recommended to remove it with a subsequent histological examination. Indications for removal are:
- polyp size from 10 millimeters;
- diagnosis of cancer cells in cytological examination of smears;
Removal of polyposis foci is not performed during pregnancy. This is allowed in exceptional cases for life reasons. Also, surgical intervention with active inflammatory and infectious process is not recommended.
In addition, the narrowing of the cervical canal and the disease of the coagulation system are considered a relative contraindication. When a malignant transformation of cells is detected, not only the polyp is removed, but also part or all of the organ (uterus).
Analyzes and examinations before surgery
The laboratory examination includes a blood test (the level of hemoglobin, leukocytes, ESR, platelets), urine analysis (protein, white blood cells, erythrocytes are counted) and detection of oncomarkers in blood.
From instrumental techniques, a gynecological examination, hysteroscopy, a pelvic ultrasound and a study of smears for the presence of infectious agents and cancer structures are carried out.
How is the removal of the endometrial polyp and how much does it cost?
The process of removal depends on the chosen technique. We list several ways:
- diathermocoagulation, when the formation is excised and its bed is burnt, after which a crust is formed and a scar remains;
- cryodestruction is based on the effect of low temperatures. In the future, there is no scar, but healing is slow;
- laser scalpel excised polyp, resulting in no scarring. Costly method, but the most common (allowed for use in nulliparous girls).
If one or two polyps are diagnosed, then their removal is possible during hysteroscopy. The advantage of this method is safety, painlessness, the ability to visualize education and to explore surrounding tissues.
As for prices, they vary depending on the level of the clinic.Endometrial polypin Russia it is possible to remove approximately for 2000-3000 rubles without taking into account surveys and consultations. In Ukraine, the price is slightly lower - about 600 hryvnia, but abroad it will be necessary to pay at least $ 3000.
The prognosis is favorable if the polyp has been diagnosed in time and removed. However, it must be remembered that in 6% there is a re-occurrence of it, therefore it is necessary to observe the gynecologist. If the cancer is diagnosed, the prognosis depends on its stage..