Symptoms and manifestations of stomach cancer
Gastric cancer, the symptoms and manifestation of which is absent in the early stages of malignant growth, is the second leading cause of death of patients from cancer. This injury is considered to be the most susceptible people over the age of 65 years. The greatest number of cancer patients with gastrointestinal tumors is diagnosed in countries of Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Japan. This, in general, is due to the peculiarities of national cuisines and environmental factors.
How does stomach cancer start?
The stomach is a J-shaped organ that is located in the upper abdomen. After chewing and swallowing, food moves to a hollow tube called the esophagus. Subsequently, the food lump penetrates into the stomach, where it mixes with gastric juice and digestion occurs.
The wall of this organ consists of three layers:
- Mucous (external).
- Muscular (medium).
- Serous (external).
Stomach cancer, symptoms and manifestationwhich occur in the late stages of cancer, in most cases initially develops in the mucous layer.
Need to know:The first signs of stomach cancer
Types of malignant tumors of the stomach
Gastric cancer - the manifestation of the disease depends on the tissue type of the tumor. The vast majority of tumors are considered adenocarcenoma, which is characterized by a cancerous transformation of the cells of the mucosa.
Other types of gastric cancer include:
- Lymphoma. This new growth affects the immune cells.
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors or gastric sarcomas.
- Carcenoid neoplasms, in which the hormone-producing function of the organ changes.
Stomach cancer: the first symptoms and manifestation in stages
Malignant neoplasms in the early stages, as a rule, are asymptomatic. Such signs of the disease as heartburn and bloating are often treated with the manifestation of gastritis or ulcers. This significantly complicates the timely detection of the tumor.
Stomach cancer: symptoms and manifestation of stage 1
This stage is characterized by the spread of the oncological process to the mucous and muscular layer. In some patients, such changes can provoke a chronic sensation of bloating and heartburn. Also, the oncologist may disturb the feelings of heaviness and discomfort in the upper abdomen.
Stomach cancer: symptoms and manifestation of stage 2
In this case, there is a malignant lesion of the muscular layer of the stomach and several nearby lymph nodes or spread of the tumor to the serosa without involvement in the pathology of the lymphoid system. Symptoms of the disease include frequent diarrhea, constipation, a feeling of fullness of the stomach after taking a small amount of food, bloating and heartburn.
Gastric cancer: symptoms and manifestation of stage 3
The pathological process is localized in the muscular and serous layers. This lesion is also diagnosed in 7-15 regional lymph nodes. In the symptomatology of the third phase of the malignant process, a pain syndrome appears. The pain gradually becomes more intense and for the relief of attacks the patient needs to take oral analeptics. Also, such oncologists may have signs of internal bleeding in the form of dark feces or blood impurities in the vomit.
Stomach cancer: symptoms and manifestation Stage 4
At the terminal stage of such a defeat of the stomach, doctors diagnose multiple metastatic foci in the lymph nodes and distant organs and systems. Typical manifestations of the fourth stage are:
- Intense pain in cancer, which is facilitated only by narcotic drugs.
- Dyspeptic disorders - heartburn, bloating, constipation, vomiting and diarrhea.
- Systemic cancer intoxication.
It is important to know:Manifestations of stomach cancer
Timely diagnosis of malignant neoplasms of the stomach
Cancer damage to the stomach, in most cases, manifests itself only after the involvement of neighboring organs in the process. Also, the primary symptoms of gastric oncology are very similar to the symptoms of many pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. All this and causes the difficulty of diagnosis. But only the timely establishment of a diagnosis makes it possible to count on the favorable outcome of therapy.
Patients with suspicion of a tumor of the stomach doctors recommend, in the first place, to conduct several diagnostic tests:
- Radiography of the abdominal organs. In most cases, X-ray examination is carried out using a contrast medium, which increases the clarity of the X-ray image and increases the contrast image of the pathological site. This examination reveals a tumor and specifies its location.
- Laboratory analysis of feces for the presence of hidden blood.
- Ultrasound examination, which determines the structure and localization of mutated tissues.
- Endoscopic examination. A specialist uses a special optical device placed in the stomach cavity to examine the mucous membrane.
- Biopsy. The biopsy specimen is taken during endoscopy. Laboratory diagnosis of a small area of pathological tissue establishes the final diagnosis indicating the stage and prevalence of the malignant process.
It is important to know:Gastric cancer after surgery
How should I treat stomach cancer?
The most optimal anticancer technique in the treatment of stomach cancer is combined therapy. Initially, the patient is exposed to radiation and the effects of cytotoxic agents. Chemotherapy and ionizing radiation stabilize the oncological distribution of mutated cells. Subsequently, the patient undergoes a surgical operation to remove pathological tissues and regional lymph nodes.
The cancer of the stomach, the symptoms and manifestation of which dictate the scope of radical intervention, is considered a healable cancer on the early stages. On the advanced stages of malignant progress, treatment is symptomatic..