The causes and treatment of teratozoospermia
Table of contents
- The causes of teratozoospermia
- Diagnosis and treatment
- Types of artificial insemination
For successful conception, it is necessary that the sperm contain a sufficient number of healthy spermatozoa. Among the many factors of male infertility, one of the main factors is teratozoospermia - the cause of infertility. With this pathology, the system of spermatogenesis is disturbed. In this case, more than half of the spermatozoa have pathological defects. Spermatozoa with a defect in the neck, head or tail lose their ability to fertilize.
To determine the index of multiple defects of spermatozoa, the index of teratozoospermia is carried out. It is calculated by dividing the number of defects by the detected pathological spermatozoa. In this case, head, tail and neck defects are considered separately. If there is one defect per sperm, the index is equal to 0. If each pathologically altered spermatozoon has three defects, then the index is equal to 0. The norm is an index equal to 0 to,.
The causes of teratozoospermia
When the amount of defective spermatozoa in the sperm increases, the probability of conception decreases. Even if pregnancy occurs, in most cases the fetus freezes, miscarriage occurs or the fetus develops with pathologies. Knowing what this pathology is, it is necessary to consider the main causes of teratozoospermia. Teratozoospermia can occur because of:
- hormonal disorders;
- adverse environmental factors;
- diseases that lead to spermatogenesis;
- chromosomal abnormalities;
- viral infections;
- inflammatory diseases.
The occurrence of hormonal disorders often occurs after the use of hormonal drugs.These drugs can be taken for medicinal purposes, as well as for muscle building. Hormonal disorders are the first of the causes of teratozoospermia, but the most common. Viral infection is much more common. It appears in the form of herpes. Teratozoospermia can also occur against inflammatory diseases: prostatitis, orchitis and epididymitis. The causes of this pathology are not only diseases and infections. It can also be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, and the impact of adverse environmental factors (high temperature, radiation).
Diagnosis and treatment
Teratozoospermia is diagnosed with a spermogram. Even healthy men in the test results can get a small amount of pathologically altered spermatozoa. The changes can be as follows:
- in the head - the size, shape, structure can be changed;
- in the neck - it can be twisted, very thick or thin;
- in the tail - change in length, quantity and inclination.
In order to determine the diagnosis and prescribe a treatment, you need to make a spermogram two times.
The interval between taking the tests should be at least two weeks. For the accuracy of the diagnosis spermogram should be done in different clinics. If as a result defective spermatozoa exceed the norm (,), then the diagnosis is confirmed, and teratozoospermia is prescribed. The course of treatment consists of eliminating the cause and strengthening the body. First, you need to determine which disease has a negative effect on the quality of sperm. After this, you need to drink a course of vitamins and supplements. During treatment, the patient should change his habitual lifestyle: give up nicotine and alcohol, switch to proper nutrition and avoid stress. It happens that the cause of the pathology is not established. In this case, prescribe general restorative therapy. If none of the treatment options has given an effective result, you can use the procedure of in vitro fertilization.
Types of artificial insemination
It happens that the treatment of teratozoospermia did not give effective results. In this case, you can use artificial insemination.
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There are three main methods of fertilization by artificial means:
- In vitro fertilization is one of the most successful methods. This procedure is performed for male or female infertility. The result of the eco will be a child who is no different from a baby conceived by a natural way. In vitro fertilization occurs as follows: using a tube to the egg, women attach a sperm. The temperature of the sperm should be around 37 degrees. Of the most promising zygotes, embryos are grown. After 3 days, the embryo is inserted into the uterine cavity. Eco has a fairly high percentage of efficiency - 30-50. A negative result can be obtained because of the cause of infertility, weight or age of the woman. Eco procedure is not affordable for everyone. However, it is possible to conduct this procedure free of charge through a federal quota. It will take a lot of time and trouble, but it will give a chance to create a full-fledged family.
- GIFT and GIFT are intratubular transfer of gametes and zygotes. If teratozoospermia without clear cause, then there is the possibility to use this method. During GIFT, the egg is connected to the sperm and transferred to the fallopian tube. With ZIFT, the fertilized eggs (zygotes) are transferred to the fallopian tube.
- Intrauterine insemination is a method in which sperm is introduced into the uterus, and fertilization occurs naturally. Insemination is used for vaginism, male infertility or lack of sperm. This method is most common among single women who want to have a child.
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Teratozoospermia is a serious medical and social problem. Often, it destroys families. Reproductive health in men worsens due to unfavorable ecology, stresses, promiscuous sexual life. Treatment of teratozoospermia is possible, but it is worthwhile to carry out preventive actions. It will be useful to give up nicotine and alcohol, and also to adhere to a healthy diet.