Causes, treatment and prognosis of anus cancer
Cancer of the anus is a cancerous disease in which cancer cells develop in the tissues of the posterior opening. The most common type of this type of cancer is squamous cell formation. Other rare species include basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and melanoma.
The causes and possible risk factors for anus cancer
Cancer of the anus is slightly more common in women than in men. The possibility of a malignant process is affected by:
- human papillomavirus;
- decreased immunity, as well as taking medications that suppress the immune system. This does not allow the body to perform protective functions;
- age over 50;
- presence of fistulas, as well as frequent redness, swelling and tenderness;
- bad habits, which is also associated with the suppression of immunity.
Nevertheless, this oncology can also develop in people who do not belong to these groups of risk.
Symptoms of an anus cancer
It is necessary to pay attention and consult a doctor in the presence of the following pathological conditions:
- bleeding from the opening or rectum;
- pain, discomfort and itching in the anus;
- The presence of a modified tissue around the hole, which is often confused with hemorrhoids;
- difficulty in controlling feces or changes in intestinal function;
- allocation at a cancer of a jelly-like substance (slime) from an aperture;
- ulcers around the anus that extend to the skin of the buttocks.
When identifying symptoms, the patient should consult a specialist for an accurate diagnosis. For this purpose, the following diagnostic procedures are used:
- External examination and collection of anamnesis.
- Finger rectal examination, during which the doctor can determineanus cancerandsigns associated with this cancer, including unusual formations in the area of the opening and rectum.
- Anoscopy or proctoscopy - the use of special tools when examining, with the help of which a biopsy is often performed.
- Endorectal ultrasound examination of the opening or rectum.
- Computer or magnetic resonance tomography scans that create a detailed picture of the desired areas of the body.
- The combination of positron emission and computed tomography, which allows you to measure the activity of cells in a specific area of the body. However, this type of survey is not always appropriate.
Therapy depends on the stage of the prevalence of the cancer process and the specific benefit for each patient. However, possible complications should be considered after certain therapeutic measures.
The most effective methods are:
The use of special equipment that uses high energy radiation. The effect of rays on oncological formations is carried out for several minutes every day for 4-6 weeks.
- severe diarrhea and involuntary gas leakage;
- exposure to the skin, which is accompanied by pain 2-3 weeks after treatment;
- loss of hair and extreme fatigue.
It foresees the use of cytotoxic drugs for the destruction of cancerous tissues. Treatment for an anus cancer usually involves the administration of agents such as "mitomycin" and "fluorouracil" (5-FU) or "capecitabine."
Chemotherapy can reduce the number of healthy cells in the blood, which is fraught with infection of the body. Therefore, the patient should carefully monitor his health.
- fast fatigue associated with anemia;
- a poor state of the body as a whole, which is accompanied by nausea, hair loss and vomiting;
- pain in the mouth caused by ulcers from drugs.
Possible only with small tumorsanus. Sometimes the method represents the replacement of radiation therapy or alternative treatment (in the case where other therapeutic methods are not possible). Also, it can be used to relieve symptoms before chemoradiotherapy.
Types of resection:
- Local excision is suitable for tumors on the external surface of the anus. During the operation, only the site containing cancer changes is deleted. The sphincter is usually not affected, so the work of the intestine remains the same. Sometimes in addition doctors recommend radiation or chemotherapy.
- Removal of the opening and rectum. This operation requires the use of a colostomy - redirection of the rectum into the abdominal wall area for the possibility of feces divergence. This procedure often frightens patients. However, many people who underwent surgery note gradual adaptation and a return to normal physiological activity after a while.
Experts often recommend a combination treatment, in which two or three procedures are used simultaneously. This allows you to achieve the best result.
Prospects depend on the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed and the way of treatment.
In general, 60-75% of people with the above-described malignant process will live at least 5 years after the diagnosis. Some patients live much longer.
The combination of chemotherapy and radiation reduces the need for colostomy and is characterized by a five-year survival rate of over 70%.
Impact onanus cancerwith the help of surgery is relevant for patients who have not undergone other methods of treatment. The prognosis of this type of therapy is represented by a five-year survival rate of 60%..