The location of the intestine in the abdominal cavity


What can the pain signal under the left rib in front?

There are many reasons that can cause pain on the left under the edge: from quite common to rare cases. Some of these causes can be very serious and even threaten the life of the patient.

Diseases of the spleen

Increase (splenomegaly)

Pathological conditions, characterized by an increase in this organ (hypertrophy), cause the onset of pain in the left hypochondrium.

There are a few sensitive receptors in the tissue, but the organ capsule reacts to the stretching processes due to the presence of baroreceptors in it. It is for this reason that dull pain often occurs with a significant increase in the volume of the spleen.

To pathological processes, because of which the spleen may increase, are:

  • Oncology of blood (leukemia);
  • hereditary diseases associated with the pathology of the blood system (sickle cell anemia);
  • anemia, which occur with the destruction of blood cells (hemolytic);
  • violation of blood circulation in the spleen vessels (thrombosis of the spleni
    c vein);
  • disease accumulation (amyloidosis, Gaucher disease);
  • lymphoma;
  • metastases of various tumors;
  • some infectious processes (mononucleosis, malaria);
  • parasitic diseases (echinococcosis);
  • liver pathology (eg, cirrhosis).


Trauma, which results in rupture of the capsule, is characterized by soreness in the left side of the hypochondrium, which is strengthened by inhalation and sudden movements.

In addition, there are other symptoms of intra-abdominal bleeding: increased heart rate, dizziness, pressure drop, severe pain when pressed under the left rib, tension of the muscles of the abdominal wall.

Diseases of the intestine

In the abdomen on the left is a loop of the transverse colon transition into the descending section of the large intestine. When inflammation occurs in the wall of the bowel (colitis), painful sensations appear.

Expansion of the intestinal wall with meteorism (hyperpneumatization) leads to the appearance of pulling unpleasant sensations. A slight touch causes their strengthening due to stretching of the intestinal wall.

The obstruction of the large intestine is manifested by intense pain, which is intensified when the stomach is pressed. Typically, swelling of the intestine, as well as the appearance of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. constipation and general symptoms of body intoxication.

The tumor of the transverse colon is manifested by the fact that the patient has long pain on the left under the ribs, the unpleasant sensations gradually (within several months) intensify.

Adhesive disease

Any surgical intervention on the space of the abdominal cavity is fraught with the development of adhesive process. And the method of surgical intervention does not always matter (open access or laparoscopic).

It is proved that adhesions develop in those cases when inflammatory exudate (fluid) accumulates in the abdominal cavity.

With the location of the adhesion between the wall of the colon and the anterior abdominal wall in the region of the left hypochondrium, there are painful sensations that increase with peristalsis of the intestine.

Pathology of the pancreas

The pancreas consists of the head, body and tail. When pathological processes occur in the tail of the pancreas, painful sensations appear to the left. Usually the patient complains of deep pain in the abdomen. which appears after a violation of diet (the reception of fatty foods).

Diseases of the stomach

Most of the stomach (approximately 80%) is located on the left side of the median line. For this reason, his diseases can lead to the appearance of soreness in the left hypochondrium in front.

The following abnormalities in the functioning of the stomach may cause pain:

  1. Inflammation (gastritis) causes pain of a pulling nature, which increases with errors in the diet.
  2. A peptic ulcer in the area of ​​great curvature of the stomach often causes painful feelings under the ribs. The ulcer is characterized by the appearance of so-called hungry pains, which appear 4-5 hours after eating.
  3. Perforation of the ulcer is manifested by the appearance of sharp dagger pain in the hypochondrium.

Rare diaphragmatic hernia

The diaphragm is a muscular organ that has several physiological holes through which pass the vascular bundles, esophagus, aorta, etc.

In rare cases, the hernia of the costal-thoracic triangle of the diaphragm occurs, in which the intestinal wall is infringed. When such a hernia appears in the left side, a painful feeling will be localized in the projection of the hypochondrium.

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system

Inflammation of the muscles (myositis), as well as intercostal neuralgia may manifest pain in the space under the ribs to the left, which is usually noisy. Characteristic of its increase in motion, slopes to the side, with a deep breath.

Irradiation (reflection) of pain from the organs of the chest

Sometimes some diseases of organs located in the chest, are manifested by pain under the ribs. These include: ischemic heart disease, left-sided lower-lobe pneumonia, left-sided pleurisy, pericarditis.

A classic example of irradiation is the abdominal form of the infarction. At the given pathology at the patient hurts not in a thorax, and under ribs at the left. According to statistics, about 5% of cases of myocardial infarction occur with a similar syndrome.

Mirror arrangement of abdominal organs

One of 1, 00 people has this pathology: the organs are arranged in a mirror. In other words, the liver is localized on the left, and the spleen is located under the right rib.

In people with a similar arrangement of organs, the pain on the left will most often signal the pathology of the liver and gallbladder. But, fortunately, this is extremely rare.

Abdominal pregnancy

There is no more than, in% of all cases of pregnancy outside the uterus. However, the fetal egg in abdominal pregnancy is often attached to a full-blooded, well-blood-supplying organs, which include the spleen, intestinal splatters, and the liver.

In rare cases, it is possible to get sick in the left hypochondrium due to abdominal pregnancy. Despite the seeming absurdity of this situation, similar cases have been recorded in medicine.

The causes of the appearance of soreness in the left hypochondrium can be various pathological processes. Some of them require intensive therapy or even surgical intervention (rupture of the spleen, perforation of the stomach ulcer, etc.).

Any symptoms should be the reason for contacting a doctor. Only a competent specialist can correctly establish why pain syndrome occurs, comparing it with other manifestations of various pathologies, and prescribe effective treatment.

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Human anatomy: what is inside and where are the organs

Anatomy is a subject for study not only by physicians. A healthy interest in this question arises, perhaps, in any person: where is the appendix, which tingles in one side or the other, or why it makes you sick during pregnancy. The scheme of the position of parts of the body inside the body, even with superficial knowledge, can help explain with the doctor over the phone, listen to recommendations and help the sufferer before the ambulance arrives. For a visual understanding, you need to consider photos and images of the structure of the human body.

What is centered


In the center of the abdominal area is the pancreas, small intestine, uterus and bladder

Anatomy of the central organs is as follows: from the pharynx down the larynx and esophagus. The location of the larynx, which is the upper part of the trachea, is determined by the external bulge in the throat region.This place in the people is called "Adam's apple". It contains the vocal cords.

On the neck, on its front, you can feel the thyroid gland. It is located in such a way that it envelops the two sides of the trachea, which by the end is divided into two bronchi. The esophagus passes through the center of the human chest and leads to the stomach from the pharynx.

In the center of the abdominal area are:

  • Pancreas (immediately under the stomach, but slightly displaced from it to the center).
  • Small intestine. This muscular tube connects the stomach to the large intestine and is folded inside the cavity with "loops since the organ can be as long as six meters in length.
  • Uterus (in women). It is located in the pelvic area, horizontally - between the bladder and rectum.
  • Bladder. The location of this bag is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, below the ureters, above the urethra.

What's on the right, and what's left?

There are at the person on the left such parts of a body:

It is behind the lungs, that is behind them. In fact, the position of this organ on the left is arbitrary. It is more correct to say that it is tilted back and to the left, since a small part of the heart captures the right side of the chest. The anatomy of a person knows cases of displacement of the heart to the right, but this concerns exceptional phenomena of the "mirror" arrangement of all the internal organs of man.

It is located immediately under the esophagus, but not in the center, but is displaced in the left hypochondrium, in the upper space of the abdominal cavity. In a calm state, the organ is 15-20 cm long, as the food is filled, the stomach is stretched and presses on the pancreas from below, as well as on the diaphragm from above.

A small organ resembling the shape and size of an enlarged bean is located in the left side of the abdominal cavity, next to the stomach.

It is considered the largest organ of man. Its place - under the "shelter" of the diaphragm, in the hypodermic part of the abdominal cavity.

Pear-shaped organ, which has very thin walls, is located directly under the liver.

It is a vermiform appendage of a thick "blind" gut that is located near the right wall of the abdominal cavity. Sometimes this organ is inflamed in people # 8212; then they say about appendicitis. Because he, surgically removed, is often absent from an adult.

Paired organs

On both sides of the center are paired organs: the lungs and bronchi

They are located symmetrically on both sides of the center. Adenoides are located in the upper back wall of the pharynx behind the nose. Palatine tonsils - behind the tongue, on both sides of the pharynx. The parathyroid glands are behind the thyroid gland (there are 4 of them).

In the chest are:

  1. Lungs. They are located behind the ribs, which protect them comprehensively.
  2. Bronchi. Located between the lungs and are the link between them and the trachea.

Behind the outer side of the chest, on both sides of it, there are breast glands. They are at a level between 3 and 7 ribs in both women and men. In men, the mammary glands are practically not developed.

Abdominal organs:

  • The kidneys. They are located near the back wall of the cavity, in the lumbar region. The left kidney, as a rule, is one vertebra above the right one.
  • The adrenal glands. The name itself speaks of the location - on top of the kidneys.
  • The ureters. These are two ducts that connect the kidneys and the bladder.

Among the pairs there are also organs related to the human sexual system: the ovaries and fallopian tubes, which are located on both sides of the uterus on the side wall of the pelvic region, and also the sexual glands in the scrotum ( men).

Women in position

How do internal organs change during pregnancy? At this time, the body is actively rebuilt in order to ensure the fetus all the conditions necessary for development. Changes affect all the systems of the body in a pregnant woman:

  1. cardiovascular;
  2. digestive;
  3. urinary;
  4. endocrine and others.

The new function and individual parts of the body are adjusted, changing the sizes, shapes and even how they should be located. This affects the well-being of a woman. Changes can provoke such phenomena as:

  • debilitating outflow of bile;
  • hepatic colic;
  • toxicosis;
  • urinary incontinence;
  • heartburn;
  • constipation.

During pregnancy, the growing uterus presses on neighboring organs

It is not surprising, because the growing uterus occupies an increasing space in the abdominal cavity, "pushing" the internal organs of the pregnant woman in the following way:

  • The liver and gallbladder are higher than usual. They rise to the diaphragm and, due to the compensatory expansion of the intercostal spaces, move to the chest. In addition, the liver turns 90 degrees, that is, assumes a lateral position.
  • Higher up and stomach. He experiences pressure and shrinks in size, especially in the last months of pregnancy.
  • The intestine also has to shift to the sides, which reduces its tone.
  • Under the pressure of the uterus from above, it drops below the bladder, significantly decreasing in volume.

Changes in pregnancy are related not only to the abdominal organs, but also to other:

  1. The heart grows in size, forced to work for two.
  2. Significantly larger in size are the mammary glands.
  3. There is a thickening of the fallopian tubes, which during pregnancy fall lower and are located along the lateral wall of the uterus.

The diagram in the photo clearly demonstrates the main changes that the woman's anatomy undergoes during pregnancy.

After giving birth, the woman's body gradually returns to its previous state. The organs take the original position, although the uterus remains slightly enlarged.

Psychologists note that a woman who knows the anatomy, it is easier to tolerate physical discomfort during pregnancy and with conscious gratitude to treat your own body.

Abnormalities of abdominal organs

Rotation disorder of the intestine. Congenital abnormalities of the bowel position include a disorder of a normal bowel turn.

With normal intrauterine development, the intestine is a primitive tube that forms the midgut, including the skinny, iliac, blind, ascending and part of the transverse colon guts.

In the prenatal period, the process of turning the middle gut from primitive to normal position begins at the 5th week. In the period between the 6th and 8th weeks, there is a turn to 90 and part of the middle gut goes outside, forming a temporary umbilical hernia. After the 10th week, the abdominal cavity increases in volume and the midgut gradually sinks into it, the blind, ascending, transverse and a part of the small intestine remains in the left half stomach. Under normal conditions, the cecum reaches the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, and the process of gradual rotation of the intestine ceases. The mesentery is fixed to the back surface of the abdominal cavity, with which the ascending and descending parts of the large intestine coalesce. With the back abdominal wall, the mesentery of the jejunum and ileum is also fused.

There are the following types of abnormalities of the bowel:

1. Impaired position of the umbilical loop after a turn of 90, the small intestine is located on the right, thick on the left.

2. When the umbilical loop is stopped in its 180 turn, the growth of the proximal part of the thick intestines and the cecum remain in place of the duodenum and fuse with the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity on the right from 1L.

3. With a high location of the cecum, the abdominal cords that come out of it squeeze the lumen of the duodenum from the outside, causing phenomena of high obstruction. When the mesentery is rudimentary attached to the back wall of the abdominal cavity, a congenital middle lobe turns around the root of the common mesentery. Turn of the middle gut around the root of the common mesentery in combination with compression of the lumen of the duodenum - Ledd's syndrome (Fig. 196, 197, A, B).

Fig. 196. Normal bowel rotation.
A - the intestine before the turn is hanging in the sagittal plane, part of the middle gut is in the umbilical cord; B - the beginning of the turn; mid-gum loop in umbilical rope, turns 90 against the clockwise direction from the sagittal to the horizontal plane; B - continued rotation for the next 180 and simultaneous spontaneous rectification of umbilical hernia; D - with further development of the turn the cecum was in the right upper quadrant; The intestine turned only 270 (scheme for Toshovsky and Vyhitil).

Fig. 197. Congenital inversion of the intestine in a child 3 days.
And - on a background of an airless abdominal cavity a gas bubble; non-contrast radiograph; B - the same picture, lateral radiograph; operation.

The clinical picture of bowel rotation anomalies depends on the stage of the turn. In most cases, there were phenomena of complete or partial high intestinal obstruction: profuse vomiting, colored bile, the asymmetry of the abdomen with the swelling of the epigastric region and the westernization of the lower abdomen with normal quantity meconium (B. A. Bairov and N. FROM. Mankina, 1962).

X-ray picture depends on the degree of compression of the lumen of the duodenum.

With complete obstruction, two gas bubbles with horizontal levels are detected in the upper section of the radiograph of the abdominal cavity. Their value varies depending on the emptying of vomit. With complete violation of the permeability of the duodenum in the lower abdomen there is no gas, with partial stenoses there are small gas bubbles.

Contrast study of the intestine is intended to determine the position of the blind and ileum.

Mirror arrangement of internal organs. Situs viscerum inversus can be total and partial. In the first case, all intraperitoneal organs are arranged in a mirror manner with respect to the norm, in the second case this applies only to the thick intestine; at such an arrangement, sigma and the descending colon appear on the right side, which is easily recognized by contrasting enema.

On the non-contrast radiograph of the thoracic and abdominal cavities the picture of the total mirror arrangement of the organs is very clear. This picture is particularly convincing in the normal state of the child and the absence of pathological phenomena - an increase stomach, stool retention, in which it is possible to suspect the phenomena that caused the displacement of the abdominal organs in the opposite side.

Embryonic (umbilical) hernia- are a rare and very serious developmental malformation. They arise as a result of underdevelopment of the abdominal wall and the ventral ventral outward movement. In the navel region, protuberance of considerable size is formed, covered with a transparent membrane, through which the organs of the abdominal cavity are visible (Fig. 198).

Radiographs of the abdomen in two projections in the horizontal position of the child determine which organs are displaced. In addition, the task of X-ray research is to identify or exclude other developmental defects.

Embryonic hernia is subject to surgery provided that it is the only defect in development.



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