Up to how many years do menstrual periods occur in women, which is the physiological norm?
The idea of how long the months are going on for women is unlikely to visit young girls. Only with the appearance of unusual physiological changes in the body, many women associate them with the approach of menopause.
Determine the age in advance of the menstrual cycle is impossible. However, there are symptoms that may indicate the approach of this period. Age-related changes associated with menopause often cause psychoemotional instability and physical discomfort. Adhering to the recommendations of a gynecologist, this period can be experienced without much shock.
Despite the fact that menstruation in almost all women causes physical and psychological discomfort, accompanied by unpleasant symptoms and reduces social activity, for some it is a confirmation of femininity, the ability to conceive and self-realization.
The duration of the menstrual cycle varies between 21-35 days. If a woman has a period of 3-7 days, this is a physiological norm. To normal physiological indicators also include the absence of severe pain syndrome, a large volume of menstrual flow, blood clots.
From the puberty period and until the onset of postmenopause, a woman is able to become pregnant. However, there are periods when menstrual discharge may be absent. They include:
- period of pregnancy;
- postpartum period (at least 8 weeks after childbirth);
With the onset of pregnancy, menstruation ceases. Bloody discharge in the early stages of pregnancy have nothing to do with normal menstruation and can be a sign of a miscarriage that has begun.
The postpartum period is characterized by the appearance of lousy (physiological discharges from the uterus, which consist of blood and necrotic tissues). In addition to blood and dead cells, Lochi includes mucus secreted in the cervical canal and altered areas of the endometrium. Bloody discharge is present for 6 weeks, with the most intense observed in the first two weeks. Ends with lochia after complete healing of the endometrium and restoration of the altered areas. If the discharge continues beyond the prescribed time, their color and volume has changed, this may indicate a developing inflammation, which requires the gynecologist's advice without fail.
The age period characterized by complete reorganization of the gonads, physiological change of all organs and systems is called the climax. This time falls on the age of 45 to 55 years. However, in some cases, the indicators can fluctuate within 5 years.
Climax passes through two phases of development:
- The first phase(premenopause) - occurs after 40-45 years. Its total duration is 2-3 years until the onset of menopause, at which the menstrual periods stop. During this period, the rhythm and cyclicity of menstrual flow changes. It reduces both the interval and the volume of menstruation.
- The second phase- lasts approximately 5 years (in each case individually). The count goes post-factum from the last in a woman's life of menstruation (menopause). The hormonal activity of the ovaries completely fades, the production of estrogen ceases. In gynecological practice, this age period is usually called postmenopause.
Symptoms indicating the approach of menopause
In advance, it is impossible to predict at what age the monthly periods can completely stop. But with the appearance of the first unnatural symptoms, we can expect the onset of hormonal changes in the body.
The most common symptoms of menopause include the following:
- change in the nature and cycle of menstrual flow (menstruation becomes meager and irregular);
- a sudden appearance of a feeling of heat, accompanied by a rapid heartbeat, red face, excessive sweating;
- psychoemotional instability, panic attacks;
- depressive state;
- sleep disturbance;
- decreased efficiency;
- exacerbation of existing endocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, heart disease);
- slowing metabolism and, as a consequence, increasing body weight;
- deterioration of the skin, nails and hair;
- dryness of the vaginal mucosa.
These symptoms are the result of hormonal restructuring of the female body.
These signs do not always indicate the approach of menopause. Sometimes they can be caused by the appearance of various diseases: hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, oncological process. Only a complete diagnostic examination will determine the cause of the physiological changes.
It is necessary to understand that changes in physiology are inevitable during the aging of the reproductive system. Each woman has a climacteric syndrome. In some, age-related hormonal changes are practically absent at the age of 40-50 years. In others, on the contrary, they are so pronounced that the thoughts that they quickly end, are present all the time.
How to understand that the previously observed menstruation is already completely over?
If menstrual flow is absent for more than 12 months, this indicates the onset of postmenopause.
Sometimes in the late period there are pathological spotting or uterine breakthrough bleeding. Such symptoms can talk about the development of the hyperplastic process of the endometrium, the appearance of fibroids or cancer. To determine the cause of the anomaly, a histological examination of the tissue fragment of the endometrium is carried out. Convinced of the absence of an oncological process, the doctor conducts an additional examination of the body.
The complex of diagnostic measures includes the following procedures:
- a blood test for hormones;
- ultrasound examination of pelvic organs;
Based on the results of the tests, the gynecologist prescribes treatment so that abnormal discharge quickly ends.
Causes of early menopause
Average statistical indicators of the age norm among European countries indicate how much the complete cessation of the menstrual cycle is observed. In most cases, menstruation may stop at the age of 55 years. While the first manifestations of hormonal dysfunction are observed from 40-45 years.
Sometimes the menstrual cycle quickly ends (up to 40 years). This feature does not always indicate the presence of pathology and may be due to a genetic predisposition to early extinction of the ovarian hormonal function. If the maternal line shows signs of an early menopause, then the chance of appearance of such a feature in the daughter reaches 70% of the cases. You can find out more information by consulting a gynecologist. He will make a forecast, from what age you should expect the appearance of the first symptoms of menopause, how many years will there be a monthly period.
Excluding the hereditary factor, consider the following reasons for the termination of the menstrual cycle:
- removal of reproductive organs (ovaries);
- endocrine and neuropsychic diseases;
- the stress factor may prematurely terminate the menstrual cycle;
- taking hormonal drugs, including contraceptives of systemic action;
- previous abortions, severe childbirth;
- bad habits (alcohol use, smoking);
- heavy physical activity.
Even young women for some reasons can feel all the unpleasant moments of the climacteric syndrome. The earlier the reproductive organs were removed, the more pronounced will be the clinical manifestations. With artificial menopause (after removal of the ovaries), hormone replacement therapy is prescribed until the age of natural menopause (45-50 years).
How to eliminate unpleasant symptoms
A set of measures aimed at eliminating the unpleasant symptoms of menopause, includes the following procedures:
- Correction of the regime of day and nutrition. To monthly ended as comfortably as possible, you need to move more. Physical activity will prevent the occurrence of stagnant phenomena in the small pelvis. Enough daily walks in the fresh air away from industrial facilities. In the diet you need to include a large amount of fiber (vegetables and fruits), to limit the consumption of protein foods, especially of animal origin, preservatives, sweets, flour products.
- Scraping out the uterusIt is indicated with prolonged or profuse bleeding from the genital tract. After it, uterine bleeding can end in 80% of cases.
- The use of hormonal drugsIt is indicated to alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The choice of the drug will depend on the age of the woman, the hormonal status, the presence of extragenital pathology and other factors.
- Phytoestrogensare used for intolerance to hormones, and as an auxiliary therapy for menopause. The course of treatment is long, from 6 months. Herbal preparations help to get rid of hot flashes and other unpleasant symptoms of menopause.
- Sedative and sedative drugsallow to eliminate psychoemotional instability. Means of synthetic origin are presented in the form of preparations Bromine, Trifthazine, Glycine. Vegetative base contains preparations of Valerian tincture, Notta, Viburkol (suppositories). Which medicine is preferable, the doctor decides on the basis of the history. It is advisable to drink the medicine before bedtime in order to avoid pronounced sedative effect during the day.
The duration of the menstrual cycle is individual in each case. A complex of diagnostic measures, performed with the appearance of the first signs of menopause, will eliminate unnecessary excitement. Regular consultations of the gynecologist and adherence to his recommendations will contribute to a milder course of climacteric syndrome.