Recurrent uterine cancer
One of the most dangerous oncological pathologies, cancer of the uterus, is on the fourth place among all neoplasms by the frequency of diagnosis and ranks 7th among the causes of deaths. The second place among malignant tumors localized in female genitalrecurrent uterine cancer.
What is the risk of recurrence of uterine cancer?
The defeat of the uterus with a malignant tumor is more common in women of reproductive age, the frequency of this pathology increases every year. The main conditions for maintaining the patient's health and life are the early diagnosis of the disease and the combined step-by-step treatment. But even with their observance, there are often situations when the tumor process begins to develop again a few months and even several years after successful treatment. In these cases, a woman is diagnosed with a recurrence of cancer of the body or cervix.
Depending on the stage of malignant formation in primary diagnosis, the type of tumor, and chosen therapeutic tactics, the frequency of relapses varies from 15 to 52%, while the level of lethality remains high. This is due to the fact that when relapses the pathological process always involves neighboring internal organs and tissues: parts of the intestine, bladder, surrounding uterus fatty tissue, lymphatic nodes. As a result, with the development of relapse, more extensive surgical intervention is required, often on the intestine or bladder. But, even with early diagnosis and complex treatment, the life expectancy of patients sharply is reduced, which is explained by the inclination of the newly developed pathological focus to rapid metastasis.
Risk factors and causes of recurrent development of uterine oncology
The main reasons for the re-development of a malignant neoplasm in the uterus are situations where, after treatment, whole parts of the tumor or even single cells remain in the body. This can happen with the operative removal of a part of the organ, and not the entire uterus as a whole, in the presence of metastases in neighboring tissues, even when tumor cells hit the surgical instruments on the nearest healthy areas during operation.
Other causes of relapse may be various negative effects on the body. These include heavy physical exertion, weight lifting, abdominal and pelvic trauma, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and the use of drugs. Important influence of sexual infections, the appearance of failures in the endocrine system, the presence concomitant chronic pathology, that is, all situations that reduce immunity and impair the body of a woman.
The first signs of relapse after treatment of uterine cancer
Clinical symptoms that indicate the appearance of a second malignant foci in the uterus are quite diverse. In some cases, they are so minimal, especially at an early stage of relapse, that the patient can not pay attention to them. The clinical picture depends primarily on whether the part of the uterus (the cervical canal) was preserved during surgery. Symptomatology can appear both in 2-3 weeks after the completed treatment, and in some years, on the average - within the first two years. Therefore, a woman must constantly monitor her health and regularly undergo a comprehensive examination. This must be done even in the absence of complaints, since it is not uncommon for malignant process to resume on the background of apparent complete health.
The first signs of recurrence after cancer of the uterus are as follows: a woman begins to periodically feel weak, dizziness, apathy, there are dyspeptic disorders, which are soon supplemented by violations urination and swelling. It is possible to raise the body temperature to subfebrile values (up to 38 degrees) and higher. The patient complains of pain in the lower back and a small pelvis of a pulling character, intensifying at night. If the external genitalia and the cervical canal were preserved during surgery, then there are prone or watery discharge, which are more specific signs of cancer resumption.
Therapeutic tactics depend on the localization of the resumed cancer process. If during the first operation the uterus with appendages has not been completely removed, and the relapse has developed in the remaining part of the organ, then it is absolutely necessary to remove it completely. Unfortunately, in many cases the tumor spreads to neighboring organs, the rectum and the bladder. Therefore, at the same time, surgical intervention is performed on them, which significantly worsens the prognosis and quality of life patients, as there is a surgical formation of the stoma (artificial canals) on the bladder or the rectum gut.
The next stages of treatment are chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These same methods are also used in cases where the uterus and appendages have already been removed from the patient, and the relapse has developed in distant internal organs, in the cellulose or lymph nodes. The use of chemotherapy and radiation shows relatively good results. These methods can reduce the intensity of the pain syndrome, improve the patient's well-being and quality of life in general, but, unfortunately, are not able to definitively stop the development of a second tumor the uterus. Their use must take into account the stage and localization of the pathological process, the general condition of the woman, the presence of concomitant diseases.
The main measures to prevent the recurrence of cancer after treatment of the primary tumor of the uterus are regular in-depth examinations. A woman should undergo a urological examination twice in the first year after the operation, then once a year. If necessary, angiography and lymphography are prescribed. Gynecological examinations should be quarterly.
It is very important that the patient adhered to a healthy lifestyle, abandoned bad habits, adjusted the regime of the day and nutrition. Physical stress should be gentle, and nutrition is full and balanced.
Prognosis and survival
Despite modern methods of treatment,recurrent uterine cancerhas a very unfavorable prognosis. Only 15% of patients, even with complex therapy, consisting of surgical intervention, chemotherapy and radiation, are able to live another 1 year. Most of the patients die within a few months, especially with late diagnosis and the use of only symptomatic agents..