Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
The cervix is a conical tube (in nulliparous women) or cylindrical (in women giving birth) that connects the vagina and the ovaries. The vaginal part of the body is lined with multilayered flat epithelium, in which a cancerous tumor can form.Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervixmost often affects women aged 45-58 years. Among all malignant lesions of the female reproductive system, cervical cancer is 12%.
In 2008, H. Hausen uncovered the cause of cervical cancer, for which he was subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize. He stated that human papillomavirus 6 and 8 of the serotype, penetrating the human body, causes dysplasia of the cervix (in the absence of immunological reaction of the body). This peredrakovoe state is directly associated with the formation of a cancerous tumor.
The development of pathology involves the so-called risk factors:
- promiscuous sex life;
- early onset of sexual intercourse;
- five or more births;
- low resistance of the organism, especially the presence of HIV infection;
- bad habits and alcohol abuse.
Classification of cervical cancer
It has been scientifically proven that cervical cancer proceeds with a successive change of stages:
- Low-discrimination squamous cell carcinoma is an immature form of the tumor that is asymptomatic.
- Squamous nonkeratinized cancer is an intermediate form that is characterized by a change in the qualitative composition of the tissue without increasing the size of pathological cells.
- Squamous squamous keratinizing cancer is a mature form in which cancer cells change qualitatively and quantitatively and begin to grow actively.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Disease
In the early stages squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is diagnosed, as a rule, during a routine examination with a gynecologist. This is due to the asymptomatic course of cancer lesions. Women need to remember that the presence of mucous, with a small admixture of blood, discharge from the genitals can serve as a nonspecific sign of oncology. The larger the cancerous tumor, the more abundant are the blood particles.
The formation of hemorrhagic symptoms is associated with excessive physical activity, sexual intercourse and straining. In the future, as the tumor grows, blood vessels are damaged and nerve endings, which is accompanied by pain in the pelvic organs, back and disruption of work urinary system.
The primary oncological diagnosis is established by a gynecologist on the basis of a visual, manual and instrumental examination of the patient. During the admission the doctor can identify the tumor with the help of gynecological mirrors and colposcopy (neck examination Uterus with the help of a colposcope, which allows you to examine the female genitalia in an enlarged view on the screen monitor). The final stage of the gynecological examination is biopsy, which involves taking a small area of the affected tissue for histological analysis. After confirming histology, the patient is referred for advice to an oncologist.
Treatment of cervical oncology
The treatment plan is compiled individually for each clinical case, taking into account the stage of cancer, associated chronic diseases, the state of the cervix. The complex of therapeutic measures can include surgical, chemotherapeutic, radiation methods of influence on cancer tissues.
The main method of treatment is a surgical operation to remove the tumor. Depending on the spread of the pathological process, surgery may include partial removal of the cervix or complete excision. In addition, late stages of cancer involve the removal of the uterus and regional lymph nodes.
After the surgical operation, it is advisable to use chemotherapy, which consists in taking a course of cytotoxic drugs. These pharmaceuticals have a harmful effect on the remaining cancer cells.
In the postoperative period, for some indications, radiation therapy may be used, which includes influence on the pelvic organs with highly radioactive radiation to exclude possible metastasis tumor tissue.
After a radical operation on the female reproductive system, patients are recommended to undergo a routine examination every three months with a gynecologist. The purpose of such visits is to prevent the occurrence of recurrence of the disease and timely treatment of possible metastases.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix - prognosis
With squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, operated on in the first stage, the survival rate of patients is about 90%. The second stage of oncology results in a 60% survival rate. In women with cancer lesions of the third and fourth stages, the survival rate does not exceed 25%..