Cyst and ovarian cancer. When does the ovarian cyst go to cancer?

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Ovarian cyst,cancerand infectious lesions of female genital organs are considered to be priority precancerous directions of modern oncology. Often for an oncologist, the terms "cystic and oncological disease" are almost identical concepts. This is due to the fact that in international classifications the cyst and ovarian neoplasm are designated as abnormal growths containing a cavity with a liquid substance.

Classification of cysts and other ovarian tumors

Despite the joint classification of these lesions, it is argued thatcyst-it's cancerwrong. Gynecologists in very rare cases observe malignant degeneration of cystic neoplasm. By the nature of the course of the pathological process, cysts and ovarian tumors are divided into the following groups:

  1. Precancerous conditions of the ovaries. Similar pathological processes occur in women older than 30 years. Border cystic formations in extremely rare cases are the causes of malignant neoplasms and metastases.
  2. Benign tumors.MCan the cyst develop into cancer
    ? This disease is associated with endometriosis of the uterus, which causes an abnormal growth of the outer uterine layer.
  3. Malignant neoplasms. Ovarian cancer is diagnosed mainly in patients who have had menopause. In most cases, women seek medical care at 3-4 stages, when the tumor causes pain. In the later stages of malignant growth, treatment includes surgery and chemotherapy. Timely radical intervention makes it possible to cure ovarian cancer in 40-50% of cancer patients.

Observation of cysts and early diagnosis of ovarian cancer

Due tocyst can go to cancer, patients with this pathology should undergo a thorough regular medical examination. The main method of primary diagnosis is ultrasound, which allows the gynecologist to study the size and localization of the tumor.

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In oncologic practice, the analysis of tumor markers is often used to determine cysts and tumors. This technique is based on the detection in the blood of specific proteins, the number of which increases with malignant neoplasm. The most common oncomarker in the pathology of the ovaries is CA-125. Unfortunately, this factor indicates both a cyst and a cancer. The final diagnosis, as a rule, is established by the results of a biopsy, during which a histological and cytological analysis of abnormal ovarian tissue is carried out.

Differential diagnosis of cyst and ovarian cancer

At primary stages, ovarian cancer is asymptomatic. Cysts are manifested disorders of the monthly cycle and a slight soreness in the lower abdomen. At this stage, the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm occurs during a scheduled visit to the doctor-gynecologist.

Ovarian cyst, cancermainly determined in the late stages of the disease. Symptoms of a malignant tumor arise as a result of the germination of the neoplasm beyond the body and the formation of secondary metastases. Signs and symptoms of cancer are: intense attacks of pain, a sharp decrease in body weight, chronic low-grade fever and general malaise. But at the same time, the establishment of a reliable diagnosis requires a cytological analysis in the laboratory.

In what cases is it necessary to perform a surgical operation in the presence of an ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cyst passes into cancer

Operative intervention is not subject only to functional cysts, the emergence of which is associated with a violation of the periodicity of the menstrual cycle and unrelated ovulation. In such cases, patients are prescribed a course of conservative therapy, aimed at correcting the monthly. Simultaneously with such treatment, the gynecologist conducts a constant monitoring of the cyst's condition. Functional neoplasm in norm should disappear in 1-2 months. Otherwise it is a pathological cyst, which requires a surgical operation.

Radical excision of cystic tissue is necessary, sincethe cyst can develop into cancer.

Surgery for cystic and tumor involvement of ovaries

Operative intervention on the ovaries is carried out under local anesthesia. During the operation, the surgeon excludes the cyst. In some cases, the removal of cystic tissue is carried out together with the ovary. After radical intervention, the neoplasm undergoes a histological examination to determine the final diagnosis.

Such treatment is planned. In modern medicine, for operative therapy of ovarian pathology, it is most expedient to perform a laparoscopic operation. This technique minimizes postoperative complications. In cases of rupture of the cyst and the formation of massive bleeding, the patient is shown emergency surgical intervention.

Cystic ovarian tumor

Is it possible to preserve the ovary when removing the cyst and suspicion of cancer?

The preservation of the ovary during a radical operation depends on the nature of the neoplasm, the localization of the cyst and the age of the patient.

With a small size of the cystic focus, the surgeon performs an organ-preserving operation, in which only the cyst with the capsule is excised. This intervention allows you to get rid of the symptoms of the disease and prevent the occurrence of a relapse.

The pathological process that causes cancer suspected is to be removed along with the affected ovary. After such an operation, the removed tissues are subjected to a microscopic examination to establish the exact form of the lesion.

According to statistical data, while maintaining the physiological patency of the fallopian tubes, the probability of getting pregnant with a single ovary is the same as with two ovaries. In addition, during the postoperative period, women are experiencing recovery of the menstrual cycle and ejaculation.

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