Dermoid neoplasm orteratoma of the ovaryIs a tumor-like proliferation of the tissues of the female reproductive glands, in the interior of which there is a cavity filled with small fragments of the skin. The emergence of such a pathology is associated with an abnormality in the development of embryonic tissues.
The disease mainly affects the right ovary, which is explained by the more active blood supply of this area and the close arrangement of the appendix.
Causes of ovarian teratoma in women
To date, science does not know the cause of the violation of embryonic development of the female reproductive system.
Scientists have established that the primary cause of this pathology may be a violation of the natural process of separation of embryonic sheets. As a result, ectoderm particles are retained in the ovaries, which subsequently give rise to the formation of fragments of the skin and bones.
Stimulation of atypical fission of embryonic tissues occurs during hormonal imbalance, pregnancy, breastfeeding and menopause. Also, to provoke the formation of cystic cavities, acute or chronic injuries of the abdominal cavity can occur.
Symptoms and manifestations of the disease
A distinctive characteristic of teratom damage is the asymptomatic course of the initial period. Clinical symptomatology develops after the neoplasm has reached considerable dimensions (8 or more cm in diameter). In such conditions, a benign neoplasm begins to put pressure on the ovaries, uterus and intestine.
Symptoms of the disease include the following exact symptoms:
- pulling pains in the lower abdomen, which tend to gradually increase the intensity of painful attacks;
- frequent urge to urinate, which is the result of tumor pressure on the bladder;
- digestive disorders in the form of diarrhea, constipation or indigestion.
What is dangerous ovarian teratoma?
The dermoid neoplasm is attached to the surface of the ovary with the help of a so-called "leg". The most dangerous complication of this pathology is associated with a torsion of education.
The clinical picture of such a complication is a sharp deterioration in the woman's well-being, acute pain that spreads to the lower limbs. The patient is hyperthermia of the body due to inflammation of the nearby peritoneal wall.
Torsion of the legs of the tumor is considered an urgent reason for surgical intervention.
Analyzes and examination of patients
Diagnosis of the disease involves the following:
The doctor can only suspect the presence of a dermoid cyst. In this case, the specialist determines the approximate size of the tumor, the localization of the neoplasm and its adhesion to the ovary.
In this case ultrasound is the most informative technique. This examination determines the size of the tumor, its consistency and the presence of inclusions in the cystic cavity. The diagnosis in this case can be established by the characteristic type of neoplasm on a long stem.
Magnetic resonance and computed tomography
Appointed in exceptional cases, when it is necessary to study the tumor in more detail.
Laboratory blood test for tumor markers
It is advisable to determine the concentration of ovarian cancer markers if there is a suspicion of malignant degeneration of the cyst into cancer. Such a study will also require puncture of cystic contents. As a result, the final diagnosis is established by histological analysis of the seized biomaterial.
Treatment of ovarian teratoma
At the present stage of development of medicine, specialists have proved the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment of this pathology. The only way to treat teratoma is a surgical operation. The scope and form of radical intervention are determined individually for each patient, depending on the location and size of the lesion.
How is the operation done?
Surgical excision is carried out in three versions:
- Kistectomy- this, in fact, the most gentle method, in which cystic tissue is cut within the ovary. Reproductive function in this case is preserved.
- Resection- This surgery involves the partial removal of ovarian tissue. In this variant, the functional capacity of the gland is reduced.
- Ovariectomy- complete extraction of the ovary together with education. Indications for such an operation are:
- advanced age of a woman;
- involvement in the cystic process of the body of the ovary;
- rupture cyst.
Ovarian Terratomais considered a benign neoplasm. Timely operated cyst has a favorable prognosis. Experts point out that the probability of cancerous transformation of the tumor is negligible. Preventive maintenance of disease thus consists in regular campaigns to the doctor-gynecologist..