Carcinosarcoma in women
The tumor is a mixed neoplasm, which is formed from carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. The tumor proceeds extremely aggressively and is mainly localized in the organs of the female reproductive system.
Epidemiology and risk factors for uterine carcinosarcoma
This tumor is considered a rather rare pathology.Carcinosarcomathe body of the uterus accounts for about 5% of all diagnosed uterine tumors. The disease mainly occurs in elderly patients (45 to 70 years) after menopause. At the same time, there is almost no carcinosarcoma of the breast.
The main risk factors are:
- Excessive body weight.
- Lack of a birth in the anamnesis.
- The use of exogenous estrogen.
- Ionizing irradiation of the pelvic organs.
Symptoms and early signs of carcinosarcoma in women
In the early stages of growth, carcinosarcoma is asymptomatic. The main symptom of this disease is spotting from the female genitalia. The further development of the tumor provokes pressure on neighboring organs and the development of pain syndrome.
It is important to know:Uterine carcinoma: symptoms, causes, treatment, prognosis
Diagnosis of carcinosarcoma of the uterus
The establishment of an oncological diagnosis consists of the following activities:
- Visual and instrumental examination by a gynecologist:
The presence of a malignant neoplasm can be suspected by a doctor to increase the volume of the uterus or the existence of individual infiltration nodes.
This diagnostic method allows you to determine the size and structure of the uterine tissue.
Biological material for laboratory examination is withdrawn by aspiration or scraping. Histological analysis establishes the tissue belonging of the tumor.
- Computer and Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
In this case, a radiographic scan of the pelvic organs is performed to determine the extent of oncology and the presence of metastases in the lymph nodes.
Carcinosarcoma - treatment today
Therapy of such a malignant tumor begins with a surgical procedure.
Carcinosarcoma, deletingwhich is combined with the course of chemotherapy, is an aggressive tumor and therefore in the course of a radical intervention, the uterus and appendages are subject to excision. During surgery, the surgeon also tries to remove all the modified nearby tissues.
After resection of the uterus, the patient, as a rule, is sent for radiation therapy. Irradiation of the affected area with highly active X-ray radiation causes the death of mutated cells. This is an additional measure to prevent the recurrence of cancer.
All the removed tissues are necessarily sent to the cytology laboratory, where an accurate diagnosis is determined. It often happens that surgical intervention is carried out about the myoma of the uterus, and ultimately the patient is diagnosed after the operation "carcinosarcoma of the uterus".
Forecast and what to expect?
The prognosis of the disease is considered unfavorable, which is caused by the asymptomatic course of the pathological process and, accordingly, late diagnosis. According to statistical data, malignant neoplasm of the uterine tissues in 40% of patients is determined at a late stage. In such cases, the tumor spread beyond the female genitalia and formed secondary metastatic foci in the regional lymph nodes.
Approximately in 60% of cancer patients, malignant lesions are limited to uterine tissues at the time of diagnosis. For such patients, a surgical operation is shown, which makes it possible to achieve a full recovery. Doctors-oncologists at the same time show that in 50% of clinical cases after a radical operation in the fifth year there may be a relapse of the tumor.
Is carcinosarcoma curable when it is re-formed? The anticancer treatment of recurrence is very complicated. But in some patients it is still possible to achieve recovery or the onset of persistent remission.
The indicator of five-year survival for patients with uterine carcinosarcoma, as a rule, does not exceed 25%, which indicates a high mortality rate.
Prevention of carcinosarcoma
According to the international system of classification of neoplasms of female genital organs,carcinosarcomabelongs to malignant Mullerian tumors. Such pathologies are extremely aggressive and poorly susceptible to diagnosis. In this regard, the scientific developments of recent years are concentrated around the study of screening studies.
In terms of early diagnosis of carcinosarcoma at the preclinical stage, the blood test for the presence of oncomarkers for women (p53, PTEN, COX-2) is highly informative. An increase in the concentration of these biochemical substances by 78% indicates a possible malignant neoplasm of the uterus.
Also, an important preventive measure is a regular examination by a gynecologist, during which a specialist can promptly suspect the formation of a cancerous lesion. The gynecologic device includes a visual examination of the mucous membrane of the female genital organs and, if necessary, a cytological examination.
In the postoperative period, patients after menopause specialists recommend periodically to examine the hormonal status. Regulation of the level of hormones can prevent the formation of precancer and cancer.
Patients need to remember thatcarcinosarcomaIs the most malignant tumor of uterine tissues, which already at early stages forms metastases in regional lymph nodes. In this regard, only the timely application for qualified medical care increases the chances of recovery. At the same time, categorically it is not recommended to engage in self-medication or resort to the help of traditional healers!.