Diagnosis of ovarian cancer
Importance of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer for women
Early diagnosis and detection of a malignant tumor in the ovaries at the initial stage of its development is of great importance for women's health and life. It is with the early definition of pathology that the chances of a favorable outcome of the disease and effective treatment increase. Nevertheless,diagnosis of ovarian canceris very difficult, because this pathology is characterized by latent development. That is why early detection of a cancerous tumor occurs in only 20% of patients.
The earliest signs of an ovarian tumor that a woman can recognize on her own
The early stage of cancer of this species in most cases occurs without symptoms. As the process of metastasis begins, there may be pain in the abdomen, the patient begins to complain of weakness.
Another additional sign is the total weight loss without changing the habitual diet. At the same time the body weight decreases, and the abdomen area increases.
It is also worth noting that early signs of the ovarian tumor process may resemble an inflammatory process, so it is important to exclude pathology such as adnexitis during the diagnosis. With further development of the tumor there are disorders of the digestive process, problems with stool up to intestinal obstruction.
What should I do if I suspect ovarian cancer and when to see a doctor?
If you have a feeling of weakness, sharp weight loss and pain in the lower abdomen, you should contact a specialist as soon as possible to diagnose and prescribe a comprehensive treatment.
For the beginning the patient can address to the gynecologist for exception of inflammatory processes and other gynecologic pathologies. If necessary, the specialist will refer the woman to the oncologist for further examination.
Pay attention: the doctor should be treated as soon as possible, because only in this case it will be possible to diagnose a malignant tumor at early stages and to increase the survival forecast.
Oncomarkers to be taken
A promising method of diagnosis is an analysis for oncomarkers. There are many malignant cancer markers, but the most reliable study for this type of cancer is the detection of CA 125.
Statistics show that in cancer patients this marker is greatly increased (in about 80% of cases). Nevertheless, at the first stage of tumor development the concentration of this marker practically does not exceed normal values.
Surveys that must be completed
Ultrasound examination has the following features:
- the ability to accurately determine the size of the tumor;
- definition of the localization of pathology;
- revealing the level of spread of the neoplasm;
- identification of changes in reproductive function.
The main advantage of ultrasound is the ability to repeatedly conduct without harm to the patient's health. Nevertheless, the definition of neoplasm by this method can be difficult if there is excess fat in the abdomen of a woman.
Contrast Computed Tomography:
This is a more progressive technique with which you can determine the condition of the tumor. As a result of this method, it is possible to detect the spread of metastases to neighboring tissues.
This is another technique by which you can obtain a three-dimensional image of the tumor. This procedure is painless, for more accurate diagnosis, often used contrast medium.
Pay attention: if there are pacemakers and other metal objects in the patient's body, this diagnosis is not carried out!
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer is carried out and laboratory. So, widely spread laparoscopy, which uses a small tube (with the help of a specialist examines the ovaries). During laparoscopic examination, it is possible to determine the stage of cancer, as well as its prevalence. Also, laparoscopy provides an opportunity to assess the condition of internal organs, which is very important before surgery.
No less common procedure - a biopsy, during which specialists receive biological material, which is further subjected to thorough research. As a rule, a biopsy is performed already during the surgical removal of the tumor, but sometimes a fence of a suspicious material is carried out in the form of a puncture.
Other additional tests:
As additional tests, a general study of blood and urine can be allow to identify the inflammatory process and accompanying pathologies, often mistaken for cancer.
The interpretation of the results or when the diagnosis is confirmed?
A competent interpretation of the results of the tests makes it possible to confirm or deny a dangerous diagnosis. In this case, the decoding should be carried out in the laboratory where the biological material was collected (this will eliminate errors).
The normal value of the CA-125 tumor marker in female patients in serum is 35 IU / ml (maximum). In the period of gestation, its value may increase.
Deciphering the results of ultrasound also helps to determine the presence and condition of the tumor. Here are some signs of cancer:
- Ovaries have anomalous dimensions, while asymmetry is clearly visible. The contour of these organs is sharply enlarged and partially visible on the monitor.
- Patients in old age have a specific education on the damaged ovary, which in its configuration resembles a cyst.
- The affected area has an increased blood supply.
- The space behind the uterus has a large amount of fluid, regardless of ovulation.
If at least one of the signs is found, the patient is immediately sent for additional examinations (ultrasound of the thyroid gland, mammary glands, and so on) to detect metastases in other organs.
How much does the diagnosis of ovarian cancer cost?
The average cost of ultrasound of pelvic organs in Russia is 2500 rubles, the approximate cost of a biopsy is , 00 rubles. Blood tests for oncomarkers will cost the patient 700 rubles (the exact cost depends on the specific laboratory). The cost of CT and MRI of the ovaries is 3-4 thousand rubles.
The cost of laboratory and instrumental research in Ukraine is not much different from Russian prices. MRI will cost about 700 UAH., Ultrasound of pelvic organs - 350 UAH. Do not forget to also take into account the cost of medical consultations and tests, which is calculated on an individual basis, depending on the policy of a particular clinic.
Thus, ovarian cancer is a dangerous and difficult to diagnose disease, which often leads to death.Diagnosis of ovarian cancershould be carried out at an early stage, and, in most cases, a specialist assigns several studies at the same time. In this case, it is possible to determine the severity of the pathology and the degree of spread of the tumor..