The formation of polypous outgrowths on the walls of the hollow organs of the digestive tract occurs quite often. It can be a stomach, gall bladder or various parts of the intestine.Rectum polypand other parts of the large intestine is recorded more often than in the small intestine.
In its origin, polypous formation is a benign structure that is attached to the wall of a hollow organ, in particular the rectum. The disease is common among both adults and children.
Separately, it should be said about the hereditary (family) polyposis, when bowel damage occurs in several members of the family. This form of the disease is more slope to malignancy than a single polyp.
In the male part of the population, this ailment is registered at, times more often. It is statistically confirmed that more than 10% of people after the age of 45 suffer from polyps in the intestine.
What is polyp of the rectum?
Polypoid neoplasms of the rectum are benign tumor-like outgrowths on the stem, proceeding from the mucosa of the anorectal zone. Recognize the disease at the beginning of development is not so simple, because the symptoms may be absent. Then there is discomfort, itching and bleeding, which can become signs of ulceration of the polyp or its malignant transformation. In addition, this education begins to be felt, especially when sitting.
Given the number of formations, the lesion can be:
- multiple, when the foci are located in several intestinal parts;
- diffuse - with damage to the entire intestine;
- single polyps.
What complications is the polyp of the rectum dangerous?
The appearance of polypous outgrowths of the intestinal mucosa may cause the development of the following complications:
- Bleeding. It develops due to violation of the integrity of the polyp when it is traumatized, against a background of prolonged inflammation or malignancy.
- Infection of the polyp and pararectal tissue, because of which paraproctitis develops and the fissure of the anus is formed.
- The polyp passes into cancer, especially when diffuse intestinal polyposis.
Causes of development
To date, the main causes of the disease can not be identified. There are only assumptions about the factors provoking polyposis intestinal lesion. In most cases, polyps occur against the background of a long-term inflammation of the mucosa, which causes the growth and change of cells.
In addition, the traumatic factor (stroke, endoscopic examination) and prolonged irritation of the mucosa with stagnant intestinal contents, due to flaccid peristalsis and constipation, are separately identified.
Also, predisposing factors include genetic predisposition, an improper nutritional diet (diets, dry food, carbonated drinks, foods with food carcinogens), alcohol, vascular pathology and diverticulosis.
At the first stage of the development of the disease, clinical manifestations may be absent. However, it can be suspected on the basis of itching and discomfort in the anus.
Specific symptoms pointing to polyposis are not isolated. However, it is worth to see a doctor when:
- discharge from the anus mucous or bloody;
- sensations of a foreign body in the anus;
- pains in the lower abdomen, extending to the posterior passage and perineum;
- violations of peristalsis (constipation, diarrhea). Frequent constipation is a sign of partial obstruction of the intestine.
The appearance of blood in the feces indicates the ulceration of the polyp or its cancerous transformation.
Multiple polyps in the rectum
Can the polyp of the rectum go to cancer?
In 1% of cases, polyps become malignant, especially in hereditary polyposis, when the lesion is diffuse.
Factors provoking cancerous degeneration of the polyp in the rectum
A traumatic factor (dry food, endoscopic diagnosis, stroke), chronic inflammation, background pathology (Crohn's disease), or irradiation of the area in relation to another oncoprocess.
How to recognize cancerousness in time?
A specific symptom that indicates an exact malignant degeneration is the appearance of bloody discharge from the anus, constipation and increased pain syndrome.
Necessary analyzes and examinations
Diagnosis of polyps begins with digital rectal examination, in which hemorrhoids, cyst formations, fistulas, fissures or oncogenes of the surrounding tissue are revealed. In addition, in men this way the prostate is probed.
From laboratory methods, an analysis is used for the presence of blood in the stool. Instrumental diagnostics includes conducting a sigmoidoscopy (if the polyp is located not farther than 25 centimeters from the posterior opening), rectoscopy, colonoscopy and irrigoscopy. All techniques allow visualization of the internal intestinal wall, polyps and assess the extent of the lesion.
In some cases, computed tomography is prescribed.
Rectum polyp: treatment and removal
The therapeutic direction for such formations is based on their removal by endoscopic, surgical or by electroexcision if the tumor is small in size. Large polyposic processes are removed in parts.
Complications of surgery can be bleeding and perforation (puncture) of the intestinal wall. The deleted material is sent for cytological and histological analysis. If rectal cancer is diagnosed, partial intestinal removal is performed. In the case of diffuse polyposis, the entire thick section is removed, and the end of the ileum (small intestine) is connected to the anus.
Forecast and what to expect?
At early detectionpolypus of the rectumin almost 90% of cases. However, one should remember the risk of relapse (especially with multiple lesions), which is often observed 1-3 years after surgical treatment. To prevent its reappearance, it is recommended to perform a control colonoscopy in a year and to monitor the state of the intestinal mucosa by an endoscopic method every 3-5 years..