What is the risk of angiomyolipoma?
Angiomyolipoma is a benign neoplasm that is formed from mutated cells of vascular, muscle and adipose tissue. This pathology mainly affects the kidneys and, in rare cases, the adrenal glands and pancreas. The disease is 4 times more common in women than in men.
Depending on the stage of pathological growth, the size of the oncologic focus can vary from 1 mm to 20 cm. Approximately 75% of cancer patients have unilateral damage. In this case, the diagnosis is made: "angiomyolipoma of the left kidney" or "angiomyolipoma of the right kidney."
Etiology of the disease
Kidney angiomyolipoma may be congenital or acquired. Neoplasms that occur immediately after the birth of the baby affect two buds at the same time. This pathology accounts for 10% of the clinical cases of angiomyolipomatosis.
In the development of benign tumors, the following risk factors play a significant role:
- Chronic inflammatory-destructive processes in the kidneys.
- Concomitant oncological diseases of the urinary system.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Period of pregnancy. The increased risk of angiomyolipoma in pregnant women is due to an increase in the concentration of estrogens and progesterone in the blood.
The exact symptoms of angiomyolipoma
At the initial stages of the oncological processangiomyolipomahas a small size and does not cause any subjective sensations in patients. The asymptomatic course of the disease in this period complicates the early diagnosis of cancer. So, for example, angiomyolipoma of the left kidney - what is it? To determine oncology at this stage is possible only with the help of hardware diagnostic techniques.
Benign neoplasm has a tendency to an active increase in size. As a result of intensive growth of mutated muscle fibers, blood vessels are damaged, which is accompanied by the appearance of spontaneous bleeding. Symptoms of gemmoradal symptoms include:
- pain syndrome of a chronic nature, which is localized in the lower abdomen;
- sharp jumps in blood pressure;
- general weakness and attacks of dizziness, which can result in a short-term loss of consciousness;
- anemia and, as a result, pallor of the skin;
- hematuria is the sudden appearance of blood cells in the urine.
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Is angiomyolipoma dangerous for the patient's life?
When the tumor reaches a significant size, there is a chance of a kidney rupture. In such cases, the patient develops extensive intra-abdominal bleeding, which can result in a fatal outcome!
Modern diagnostics of angiomyolipoma
The success of cancer treatment depends on timely diagnosis. To determine the tumor process in the kidney tissues, doctors use the following measures:
Scanning of the renal tissue with high-frequency sound waves makes it possible to identify the pathological focus and determine its size.
Computer and Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
The data of the survey consists in the digital processing of X-ray study data. This allows you to establish the structure and localization of a benign neoplasm.
General and detailed blood tests:
Witness the state of the urinary system.
The method for the detection of angiomyolipoma is based on the establishment of the pathology of the renal vasculature.
It is the basic diagnostic measure for the detection of tumors of hard and soft tissues.
This is the method of establishing a definitive oncological diagnosis based on the results of histological and cytological analysis of a small area of pathological tissue. For the diagnosis, a biopsy specimen (material for analysis) is removed from the patient by a surgical or puncture method.
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Based on the diagnosis, the specialist develops an individual therapy plan, which takes into account the stage of growth, size and localization of a benign neoplasm.
According to modern oncological standards, tumors with a diameter not exceeding 4 cm are subjected to expectant treatment. Such therapy consists in periodic monitoring of the patient's condition. During this period, the oncological patient is subjected to annual ultrasound and x-ray diagnostics.
Treatment of angiomyolipoma, the size of which exceeds 4 cm, involves the implementation of radical intervention. In addition to exceeding the threshold volume of neoplasm, the indication for a surgical operation is:
- The expressed clinical picture of the disease with the progression of malignant symptoms.
- Rapid growth of the tumor.
- Development of chronic renal failure.
- Periodic hematuria.
In cancer practice for the surgical treatment of angiomyolipoma the following methods are used:
- Resection of a part of the kidney affected by a benign neoplasm. Such an operation refers to organ-preserving surgical interventions.
- Embolization. This technology foresees the introduction of a special drug into the artery feeding angiomyolipoma. The action of such a device is aimed at overlapping the lumen of the vessel. This technique is used as a preparatory stage before a surgical operation. Only in rare cases, embolization can serve as an independent method of therapy.
- Enucleation. During such an intervention, the surgeon removes the tumor without damage to neighboring kidney tissues.
- Cryoablation is a modern way of tumor excavation using ultra-low temperatures. This technique is only indicated for small tumor sizes.
- Complete kidney resection. In some cases, with a significant tumor size, the surgeon is forced to remove the organ.
Prognosis and survival with angiomyolipoma
Angiomyolipomais considered a benign tumor that is in a connective tissue capsule. In this regard, treatment of this pathology has a favorable outcome. In most patients, after surgery, a full recovery is observed..