Analyzes for thyroid cancer
Oncopathology of the thyroid gland is not uncommon, and most of the patients are people of young, working age. Today, there are accessible and informative examinations of this body, allowing early diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor. Persons with a diagnosisthyroid cancer, analyzesare performed only in paid laboratories, but the cost of diagnosis is within reasonable limits.
What tests for thyroid cancer are the most objective for today?
They are an original variant of screening for cancerous tumors. For some common tumors, certain substances that produce malignant cells are isolated. The detection of these substances in the blood in most cases is a confirmation of oncopathology. For thyroid cancer, these substances are thyreoglobulin and calcitonin.
Thyreoglobulin is an indicator of the follicular and papillary variant of the tumor, and calcitonin indicates the presence of medullary formation. That is, oncomarkers cover almost all variants of thyroid cancer, except for a rare anaplastic carcinoma.
In addition to the need for confirmation of the diagnosis, analyzes for oncomarkers are performed in the course of therapy to assess the effectiveness of treatment and monitor the condition of the body. If the tumor has been removed completely, but in the blood repeatedly continues to reveal thyroglobulin or calcitonin, that is, metastases in other organs. Perhaps they are not yet detected by visualization methods of diagnosis, but they should be treated already.
Analysis for the thyroid cancer gene
The thyroid cancer gene can detect hereditary breakdowns, which in the future can cause cancer growth. A positive response does not mean that the patient has or will definitely have cancer. This analysis makes it clear the risk of oncology. Patients with an already established diagnosis of some genes to hand over senselessly, but his relatives this examination is necessary.
- Epidermal growth factor EGFR. This analysis shows the risk of tumor recurrence and is performed by patients after the course of therapy.
- The gene BRAF speaks about the risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer. Indicated for the conduct of individuals whose blood relatives had been diagnosed with cancer.
- The mutation of the protogen RET also indicates the likelihood of the appearance of medullary thyroid cancer, but in most cases this analysis is positive already in the presence of malignant cells. This is the most reliable genetic test for thyroid cancer. It is shown to the patient and his relatives.
The drawback of this analysis is that he does not say exactly whether the patient will have oncology. In addition, negative genes do not guarantee the absence of a risk of developing cancer. However, a positive response gives the patient an understanding that the disease can occur and regular preventive examinations will help detect the cancer at an early stage.
Given that the treatment of oncology is quite an aggressive process, the diagnosis is not confirmed by one of the surveys, but is established only when assessing the aggregate of data. However, chemotherapy, radiation treatment or radioiodine therapy is prescribed only if the thyroid cancer is confirmed histologically.
Histological examination means that the neoplasm is examined under a microscope and the specialist reveals its cellular structure, finds malignant cells. Perhaps this is due to tissue taking by biopsy.
A biopsy of the thyroid gland is carried out practically painlessly and without preliminary preparation of the patient. The examination is unpleasant, but quick and effective. To take a histological material, a special puncture needle is used, which, under ultrasound control, is inserted into the suspicious region of the gland. The material is aspirated and applied to the slide, which is then sent to the laboratory.
A puncture biopsy of the thyroid gland is performed without anesthesia. Upon completion of the examination, the patient can immediately go home.
Before the puncture biopsy, the material was taken by an open method - the doctor performed a cut on the neck, cut out the node and then sent for histological examination. With the creation of puncture biopsy specialists were able to clearly screen out those patients who do not need surgical treatment.
Symptoms required for the assignment of these analyzes
What are the symptoms of thyroid cancer and require an urgent appointment of tests?
- Sensation of a lump in the throat, discomfort, in the neck causing frequent coughing.
- Visual change in the shape of the neck from the front, perhaps a feeling of palpable formation.
- Suffocation, respiratory failure, difficulty swallowing.
- Change in voice, hoarseness.
- Pain in the neck with irradiation in the lower jaw, ear.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer develop even with tumors of large size, so it is best if analyzes are prescribed for prophylactic purposes, when ultrasound has been detected nodes or other suspicious changes.
How to prepare for thyroid cancer testing? What do you need to know?
Special preparation is not required before taking the tests, since neither eating or physical activity can affect cancer markers or genes. However, for the reliability of the result, it is nevertheless recommended to follow the general recommendations before donating blood:
- The last meal should be 8 hours before the examination.
- If this is possible within a week before blood donation, medication should be excluded.
- Do not drink alcohol and fatty foods for several days before the diagnosis.
After receiving the results, remember that they are decrypted by the doctor. Do not panic if you see a positive response. Today, thyroid cancer can be treated, especially if it is detected at an early stage. So do not delay the day of testing. The sooner a diagnosis is made, the better the treatment will be.
The average cost of oncomarkers for thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Russia:
- Thyreoglobulin - 110 UAH., 800 rubles. The implementation period is 2 days.
- Calcitonin - 200 UAH., 950 rub. The implementation period is 2 days.
The average cost of tests for genes of thyroid cancer in Russia:
- Gene BRAF cost 5000 rubles. The term of 5 days.
- The proton mutation RET costs about 1, 00 rubles. The implementation time is 3 - 4 weeks. In Ukraine, this research is not being carried out.
Histological examination of the thyroid gland without material intake costs 200 - 250 UAH. in Ukraine and about 1000 rubles. in Russia. The duration of the histology is 2 - 4 days. The cost of a direct biopsy varies depending on the level of the clinic, but is within reasonable limits (200 - 400 UAH. in Ukraine and 1000 - 1500 rubles. in Russia).
When should I see a doctor?
To hand over analyzes on a cancer of a thyroid gland follows to persons at which nodal educations of an organ have been revealed. The nodes of the thyroid gland can have both benign and malignant nature. Small single units that are not associated with blood vessels require regular monitoring - ultrasound imaging once a year. If the nodes increase - then this is an occasion to consult a doctor.
The second situation, when it is necessary to pass tests for thyroid cancer - is the identification of a large node associated with the vessel, or several small, well-vascularized formations. Active blood flow is an important indicator of a malignant tumor. And the last common situation is the discovery in the iron of education without clear boundaries. Most likely, it is malignant and gives active growth in the thickness of a healthy glandular tissue.
Given the potential of medicine, people with a diagnosisthyroid cancer, analyzesallow you to accurately diagnose. The organ is available for visualization and biopsy taking, so it remains surprising why with this level of diagnosis, still on-going cases of oncology continue to be identified.
If in your family there were cases of thyroid cancer or ever in the conduct of a prophylactic ultrasound, knotty formations were identified, you must periodically undergo diagnostics! So you will take your condition under control and avoid the prolonged treatment that is required with advanced thyroid cancer..