Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer in Women

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The thyroid gland is an organ of internal secretion, which consists of two blades located on both sides of the trachea. These two parts are connected by an isthmus. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that regulate metabolic processes. Thyroid cancer, the symptoms of which in women include swelling, pain and impaired swallowing, occurs with a frequency of one case per 1000 people. According to statistical data, thyroid cancer in most cases affects women.

Classification of thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

It is considered the most common oncology of the thyroid gland. It accounts for 70-80% of all diagnosed tumors in this area. Papillary carcinoma affects the hormone-forming cells of the organ and grows extremely slowly.

Follicular carcinoma

This type of cancer is also formed from cells that are responsible for the formation of hormones. A characteristic feature of follicular carcinoma is rapid and aggressive growth. This oncology in the structure of thyroid lesions is about 10%.

Modular carcinoma

This tumor tends to be genetically transmitted along the family line. This malignant neoplasm is considered a rare disease and has 5-10% of thyroid cancer.

Anaplastic carcinoma

This is the most aggressive thyroid cancer in women and men. It, as a rule, intensively grows and extends to the trachea. As a result of this growth, the air passages are blocked. The tumor accounts for 7% of all thyroid gland malignancies.

Lymphoma

The formation of this pathology is associated with the penetration of white blood cells into the thyroid gland and their subsequent cancerous degeneration. Lymphoma is diagnosed in 4% of clinical cases.

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Causes and Risk Factors of Thyroid Cancer in Women

Studies of the causes of cancer of the thyroid gland in women continue to this day. Scientists point to the following risk factors:

1. Ionizing radiation:

High doses of sunlight can contribute to malignant transformation of thyroid cells. Also, a person's stay in the zone of man-made disasters with the release of radioactive substances increases the chances of contracting this disease.

2. Chronic goiter:

An enlarged thyroid gland for a long time can provoke the development of oncology.

3. Genetic predisposition:

Some types of malignant neoplasms are prone to inheritance on the family line.

Exact symptoms in women

Symptoms of thyroid cancer in women include the following symptoms:

  • progressive throat swelling and enlargement of the gland itself;
  • change voice timbre and hoarseness;
  • chronic attacks of dry cough;
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the form of constipation and diarrhea;
  • slowly growing pain syndrome.

Methods for diagnosing thyroid cancer in women

The examination of cancer patients occurs according to the following scheme:

  1. Clarifying complaints of the patient and family history.
  2. Physical examination, which consists of a visual examination of the nasopharynx and palpation of the thyroid gland.
  3. A general and detailed blood test, which also includes an analysis for cancer markers for women.
  4. Ultrasound examination, which allows to detect the presence of malignant neoplasm and its size.
  5. Instrumental examination and evaluation of the condition of the vocal cords.
  6. Biopsy. This technique makes it possible to establish a final diagnosis based on the results of histological and cytological analysis of a small area of ​​pathological tissue.

Options for the treatment of thyroid cancer in women

The choice of the method of therapy for malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland depends on the type of tumor, the stage of the cancer process and the prevalence of pathology.

  • Surgery:

Surgery, in most cases, is indicated for papillary or follicular carcinoma. The essence of the operation is the complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland, which depends on the extent of the pathological process. If there are cancer cells in the regional lymph nodes, then they are also destroyed.

  • Radiation therapy:

In the course of this therapy, the destruction of malignant tissues is carried out with the help of preparations of radioactive iodine. This treatment, as a rule, requires the patient to stop taking thyrotoxin, which stimulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone, which promotes the absorption of radioactive iodine.

In cases of ineffectiveness of such treatment, the oncological patient is assigned a course of remote irradiation with highly active radiology beams.

  • Hormonal therapy:

All operated patients with thyroid cancer require corrective hormone therapy in the form of thyroxine. The dose of this drug, as a rule, is prescribed in an increased amount, which causes a systemic suppression of the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The need for such therapy is dictated by the ability of thyrotropin to stimulate the formation of thyroid cells.

  • Chemotherapy:

This treatment includes the use of cytostatic agents that destroy cancer cells at the systemic level.Thyroid cancer, symptoms in womenwhich indicates the presence of metastases, is subject to mandatory chemotherapy. Dosage and duration of the course of treatment is determined individually, depending on the general condition of the organism of the cancer patient. Cytotoxic agents are usually prescribed at intervals of three to six months.

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