Cytology of the cervix
To maintain women's health, the experience and consultations of special specialists are constantly required. During pregnancy, for example, a woman goes to see a gynecologist, and during the birth of a baby the midwife will always help. With regular examinations a woman must be examined by a mammologist.
What is the Cytology of the cervix uteri are not aware of all the representatives of the weaker sex. But it is vital to know this: the examination plays a huge role in the early detection of serious pathologies of this organ.
Today, unfortunately, such an attack as a cancer, often destroys our lives and hopes. Oncology of female organs is difficult to determine at the very beginning, therefore requires preventive examinations.
Science cytology in aid of diagnosis
Cytology is difficult to attribute to the medical industry in its pure form. It has more biological significance and is vital for diagnosing various ailments. Cytology is connected with the study of the structure and functioning of the cellular system. The microscope helps to trace its cyclic existence from the beginning to the end. In the focus is always the multiplication of cells, the presence of any organelles and the appearance of any kind of pathology in the functioning of cells.
Directions of cytology research
The foregoing implies the active application of the experience of cytology in medicine. Widely used, for example, cytological studies of the cervix uteri - it is aimed at studying how the cells are structured and built. In addition, cytology is part of laboratory research. Science is purely descriptive, not giving accurate predictions. A modern trend was oncocytology, which allows diagnosing neoplasms immediately upon their appearance.
Gynecology and cytology
If there is a suspicion of pathology and even with pathological changes, a cytological smear test is performed. When any treatment of the reproductive organs begins and ends, the smear for cytology is an integral part. This research determines the state of affairs in cells of the cervix, and the female system of organs in general.
A little bit about the history of cytology
The first time this type of control was carried out in the 1930s. For the first time, the classification of cells required for the cervical cytology was presented in the 1950s. Over time, there were changes, and the last version appeared almost 30 years ago. According to the latest development, the cells of the organ described are divided into variable stages with the characteristic of different atypicality. The initial stage is the norm, the final stage is invasive oncology. The data of this classification are invaluable for diagnosing diseases and choosing the right intervention.
Direct examination of cervical cells using a smear
The genus of such smears on the study of cytology is taken with the use of colposcopy, or by examining the vagina. The process is carried out using a microscope. Epithelium is constantly subject to renewal, which manifests itself in the lumen of this organ and the vagina as a whole. The cellular structure helps to determine their qualitative and diseased components with microscopy.
What is a pop test?
This control is one of the most usual and unobtrusive methods of analysis, which does not have any discomfort for the client. Pap test determines the identification of options for the transition of cervical cells to oncology. In addition, he can diagnose the process of the tumor and other components of the female reproductive system, ovaries and uterus.
True, the daddy-test is sometimes not entirely accurate. Sometimes, after diagnosing data with a minus sign, the patient showed oncology of the cervix. This phenomenon can be explained by a poor-quality fence of material only from the surface. Rebirth of the plan associated with cancer changes is initiated from the lower layers and moves to the the upper, therefore, the analysis of only the upper layers can show modifications already to a finite degree disease.
The use of scraping in cytology
Biomaterial for the examination of smears is withdrawn with the help of a brush and a special spatula, by which scraping of cells coming in layers is performed. During the process, the material from the cervix gets to the glass surface without its structural change.
The cervix and its cells are scratched in various places, the material is placed on a special surface of the glass, fixed with a special solution and a special kind is produced by staining. And further - a thorough analysis, which should reveal the presence of atypical cells, indicating a strong inflammatory process or oncology.
The study is carried out using a microscope. In the pattern, cells are examined in terms of their outline of number, the nuances of mutual positions. Today, multistage analyzes with variations on the staining theme are also applicable.
Liquid cytology of the cervix: the reasons for the
The above analysis is valuable for a clear definition of variability in cells with oncoproteins. A thorough cytological examination is being carried out, which the client's attending physician subsequently explains. If the procedure is performed correctly, dysplasia at the very beginning, other modifications of the pathology in the cells of the cervical tissue and organs of reproduction are revealed.
The results of such monitoring will give vain anxiety in terms of painful procedures, which they do not currently need. If a cervical dysplasia due to a human papillomavirus is detected, a smear can lead to more careful analysis, which will reveal a 100% correct diagnosis and feasibility of this or that therapy.
Categories of women for the application of cytology
This control is carried out annually during regular inspections of the plan, including pregnant women. The study is not mandatory for women who do not have sexual experience, since the papilloma virus can only be transformed sexually. And if the client did not live a sexual life, then such an infection in the organs of reproduction will not fall. Nevertheless, malignant pathology is sometimes due to heredity. When revealing the degeneration of cells with the help of scraping, it must be performed again.
The cytology of the smear is also necessary due to the violation of the cycle, problems with childbearing, cervical erosion, vaginal discharge from undetermined origin. The passage of long-term therapy with hormones, the presence of ailments of the viral genital tract, papillomas and warts are all indications for action. Also, a cytological examination should be done if you are going to become a mother, and before introducing a spiral.
On the recognition of pathologies
This type of research can show the pathology in the nuclei of cells. It is very important to understand the level of cellular degeneration and their orderliness. Hence comes the awareness of the nature of the disease and the appointment of suitable therapy. Cytological research has the ability to identify precancerous and cancerous modifications in female organs already at the very beginning of development. In addition, cell variations may indicate the presence of some inflammation, for example, the type of erosion of the cervix.
Patients on the rules of abstraction of the biological component
Any intervention in the body implies a set of rules, which should be informed to the woman in advance.
For example, a lady can not enter into intimate contact without using a condom two days before the analysis. In this case, the microflora will be different, and the results will be distorted.
It is forbidden to use various drugs that are introduced into the vagina. From the diet exclude acute food, alcohol and cigarettes, all this can penetrate the cell membrane.
It is also forbidden to wash the rules on this day; You need to visit the procedure by drinking enough water. A woman should not go on a monthly basis, ideally plan a reception for the 10-20 day cycle. Do not perform the procedure in the presence of yellow or green discharge of abundant properties from the vagina. Special therapy is needed.
How are the results obtained? The test for the cytology of the smear shows the functioning of the cells of the cervix. Classify the five different conditions observed in the cell. Absence of cells with pathology, small modifications of the cell nucleus and no degenerated cells; individual modifications of the cytoplasm and nucleus and possible probability malignant formations; there are some cells with an anomaly and there are signs that an oncology is possible; many cell damage and precancerous condition organ.
How it is recommended to be treated after the test
Deciphering the results of the procedure will affect the treatment of an anti-inflammatory nature, called the second type smear, it is possible to conduct an additional procedure, and maybe it will take a reception from an oncologist and more serious research.
Also, according to the data, the doctor has the right to prescribe procedures for the prevention of the development of pathology in the cervix and its cavity.
The method of colposcopy differs informatively, which implies getting into the vagina, its walls and cavity. He demonstrates the focus of the defeat of these components during erosion and its character.
And briefly: what we have after the above procedure
In gynecology, a small interference of a surgical nature is carried out, which is aimed at removing a site of tissue with a lesion from some kind of ailment. He is a cone-shaped species, therefore it was called conization. The removal is from the cervix and the cervical canal.
There is also a very painless procedure, when a special probe is brought into a state of freezing of the cervical tissue with lesions, and then - they themselves gradually leave. The scientific name is cryocautery.
Having performed the above method with the use of scraping, other assays are possible, among which excision of the site with a loop with pathology and laser therapy.