Thyroid biopsy with cancer
Endocrinological diseases are not rare among representatives of many countries. A special place among them is the pathology of the thyroid gland, as it can cause disruptions in the work of many other internal systems of the body. This small gland is very important in the correct activity of the whole body. The proximity of this organ to the skin facilitates her research. Among thembiopsy of the thyroid gland, which most often affects the choice of tactics of observation and treatment of many cancer patients.
What is biopsy and what does it give?
Biopsy is a manipulation, during which the cells are taken from a pathological hurricane. In most cases, it is carried out using a thin needle connected to a special device. This method is also called fine needle puncture. Accuracy of the hit is monitored using an ultrasound machine. After entering the needle in the right place, the doctor takes a small amount of cells and puts them on a slide.
Sometimes patients with suspected tumor diseases of the thyroid gland biopsy are conducted in an open manner. For this, a cut of the skin and underlying tissues is made, after which the site of the organ is taken for further investigation. This method is used quite rarely. Usually, such a biopsy is performed during operations to monitor the condition of the excised tissues. Regardless of the way the cells are taken, further study is done in the same way:
- staining the resulting material;
- cytological examination under a microscope;
- delivery of a medical report.
In many cases, only after receiving the results of puncture can you determine the exact diagnosis. This method of diagnosis can accurately establish the nature of nodular changes in the thyroid gland, so it is so often used. Usually before it the endocrinologist advises to hand over a blood on tireotropnye hormones and antibodies to TPO and TG and to pass or take place ultrasound examination to have a complete picture of the internal condition and functionality of the subject organ.
Who is prescribed a thyroid biopsy?
This procedure is in many cases decisive in determining the good quality or malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland, therefore it is exposed mainly to those people who have direct indications. The following categories of patients are subject to the fine-needle biopsy of the organ under examination:
- people with newly diagnosed foci of pathology larger than 1 cm;
- people who have noted a clear growth of previously described sites;
- signs of malignancy on ultrasound (vascularization, the presence of calcification, the absence of clear contours in formation, its echoinhomogeneity, changes in the size and structure of closely located lymphatic nodes);
- soreness in the area of the hearth.
Formations in the thyroid gland less than a centimeter are punctuated less often. They are conducted if the patient or his blood relatives have a confirmed oncological diagnosis, associated with the given area, irradiation with radiation, growth of suspicious areas after the spent surgical treatment.
Sometimes an endocrinologist can give a direction to a puncture on the basis of areas of heterogeneity revealed on palpation of the anterior surface of the neck. Without a previous ultrasound examination of the internal structure of the gland, there will be no puncture, so it is necessary to pass it beforehand.
Aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland is a fairly easy way for the patient to study, therefore, he has few restrictions to conduct. These include the refusal of the patient himself, or a violation of consciousness, exacerbation of mental illnesses, during which he can not control his actions. Also, contraindications to this manipulation include blood clotting disorders, which can cause significant bleeding. Pregnancy can often serve as an excuse for postponing this process for a while. Determine the need for this type of diagnosis can only be the attending physician and the doctor who conducts this procedure.
How to prepare for the TWB?
Special preparation before site puncturing is not required. In some cases, you can take sedatives beforehand so as not to be nervous before the procedure. An important nuance that can affect the correctness of material intake is the level of blood pressure. Therefore, in many clinics it is measured immediately before manipulation. Those patients who suffer from hypertension should take prescribed medications in advance or take them with them.
How is thyroid biopsy performed?
The collection of material from the gland tissues is carried out under sterile conditions. Before the procedure, the patient is asked to release the neck area from the jewelry and clothes, then stack with the head thrown back. After processing the skin with an antiseptic solution and visualizing the required area on the monitor of the ultrasound machine, a one-time needle is punctured through the skin into the designated place. During the collection of cells, you should carefully listen to the doctor's instructions and follow them exactly. Before the piercing, the doctor asks to swallow saliva, do not swallow any more and do not move to his mark. The accuracy of entering the site and the least traumatic process depend on compliance with this request. Further examination of the samples takes some time, therefore the results of the puncture can be obtained after several hours or the next day.
If necessary, fences of cell samples from several sites can be simultaneously produced. In this case, they are schematically depicted on the study protocol and numbered according to the punctures performed. After a puncture, the injection site is treated with antiseptics and sealed with a patch. It is not recommended to rise sharply to the horizontal position, as this may lead to a dizziness or even fainting.
Is it painful?
A biopsy of the thyroid gland tissues refers to painless procedures. To conduct anesthesia at this type of examination is not necessary, since the tissues of this organ do not have sensitivity to pain. Only the introduction of a needle through the skin is felt, which is quite tolerable. If at this moment to overcome tension and relax the muscles of the neck, you can not even feel the very injection. A greater inconvenience to the patient may be the position of the head thrown back.
Possible consequences and safety procedures
Aspiration biopsy of the nodes in the thyroid gland is considered to be a sufficiently safe study throughout the world. After its passage, no restrictions are required. Immediately after leaving the office, you can safely continue the usual life and engage in any type of activity.
Some people after the puncture may experience the following unpleasant symptoms:
- soreness when swallowing;
- bleeding or bruising at the puncture site;
- body temperature rise;
- feeling chills and aches in the extremities.
The appearance of a hematoma at the site of puncture takes place most often in people who have high blood pressure during the procedure or who take blood thinning medications (warfarin, aspirin, cardiomagnet). There are no negative consequences, except for a temporary cosmetic defect, this usually does not bear. If signs of inflammation, characterized by fever, fever or an increase in cervical lymph nodes, you should contact your doctor, who will make an examination and appoint the necessary treatment.
The cost of passing a biopsy of the thyroid gland depends on the region and the level of the clinic that provides this service. In Russia, its price ranges from 800 to 6000 rubles. In areas related to the zone with high levels of radiation, there are free survey programs available to anyone in need of them.
In Ukraine, the price of this survey can be from 300 to , 00 hryvnia. Usually it depends on the number of punctured nodes.
Aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland helps to quickly and practically painlessly detect changes in its cellular structure and take all necessary measures to preserve further health. For most people, this procedure is carried out once and in the future, periodic monitoring of the affected areas with ultrasound is required. Rapidly obtaining a result allows patients to be less stressed because of uncertainty. Therefore, if the doctor prescribes this manipulation, you should not abandon it. To take care of your health is to check it in time..