Papillary thyroid carcinoma is considered the most common form of cancer of the body. About 80% of cases of oncology of this area occur in the papillary form of cancer. This pathology is often accompanied by metastases in the lymph nodes, which causes a high incidence of relapses.
Causes of the disease
According to statistics, the peak incidence of papillary carcinoma occurs in the 30-50-year-old age of patients. This pathology is three times more common in women than in men. In 50% of clinical cases at the time of diagnosis, the patient has metastatic lesions of lymphoid tissue.
In oncological practice, the following types of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland occur:
- Anaplastic thyroid cancer.
- Papillary carcinoma.
- Follicular tumor.
- Modular cancer of the gland.
- Thyroid gland lymphoma.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma: causes of development
The emergence of papillary carcinoma in most cases is associated with such risk factors:
- Exposure to ionizing radiation:
The carcinogenic effect of radiation was confirmed by statistical data on oncological morbidity after the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear bombing of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As a result of these disasters, 7% of people from the surrounding areas were diagnosed with a thyroid cancer.
- Radiation therapy:
Patients treated with gamma radiation have an increased chance of developing papillary carcinoma. This is due to the development of systemic mutations in the human body under the action of ionizing radiation.
- Iodine deficiency:
In some cases, promotes the formation of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
- Tobacco smoking and abuse of strong alcoholic beverages.
- Genetic predisposition.
Symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma
The cancerous process in the thyroid gland proceeds slowly and in the early stages does not cause patients subjective sensations.
Over time, a pathological densification of the glandular tissues is formed in this area. The patient can independently determine the node, which also can correspond to the metastatic lesion of the cervical lymph nodes. At this stage most cancer patients have:
- Slowly growing pain syndrome. In the later stages of tumor growth, pain can be controlled with the help of narcotic analeptics.
- Disturbance of respiratory and swallowing function. Such pathological conditions are often associated with a risk of choking.
- The presence of an uncharacteristic hoarseness of the voice. A sudden change in the timbre of voice in the elderly age should alert the patient to the onset of oncology.
The main way to determine the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is aspiration biopsy. During the procedure, the doctor pierces pathological tissue with a thin-walled needle and spends a small area of the malignant neoplasm. In some cases, a biopsy specimen from several compaction sites is required. Subsequently, the biological material undergoes cytological and histological examination under laboratory conditions. Ultimately, aspiration biopsy indicates the type, stage and extent of cancer.
To determine the size and structure of the tumor, the oncologist may resort to ultrasound examination. The ultrasonic method is based on measuring the penetrating power of sound waves, which forms a graphic image of the affected organ on the monitor screen.
Computed tomography is needed to assess the extent and prevalence of cancer. X-ray scanning of the neck region determines the exact size of the papillary carcinoma and the presence of metastases in nearby lymph nodes.
The complex of diagnostic measures also includes the analysis of the circulatory system on the amount of thyrotropin. The oncologist on the concentration of this hormone makes a plan for anti-cancer treatment.
Treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma
Operative intervention is considered to be the most effective technique for the therapy of thyroid cancer. In the course of a surgical operation, tumor tissues, thyroid gland and adjacent lymph nodes are to be excised. The patient, as a rule, is operated under general anesthesia.
Papillary carcinoma, the operation on which was performed in the traditional way, often requires the provision of therapy with radioactive iodine. The use of this drug is recommended to be carried out within 1-2 months after the radical removal of the neoplasm. Iodine in a radioactive form is capable of destroying cancer cells that could remain in the primary focus of oncology after surgery.
Treatment with radioactive iodine does not pose a threat to the patient's body as a whole. The safety of this drug consists in the absorption of iodine ions only by the thyroid gland cells. Thus, all radioactive elements are localized in the thyroid gland.
In addition, the patient should observe proper nutrition after cancer and periodically take hormonal medications.
The most favorable prognosis for patients younger than 40 years. Also, a positive outcome of therapy is observed with limited growth of the tumor without going beyond the capsule of the thyroid gland. In such cases, postoperative survival is 95%.
Papillary carcinomaat the late stages of growth with a significant spread of the oncological process and the presence of metastases has an unfavorable outcome of treatment. Significantly aggravates the course of this disease the development of secondary foci in the lungs and bone tissue..