Ectasia of the ducts of the mammary gland what is it?
The pathology of the mammary gland is one of the most common reasons why women turn to a doctor. Ectasia of the milk ducts is not a dangerous condition, and it arises from the development of other changes in the body. But this phenomenon often indicates troubling diseases requiring rapid intervention.
Anatomy of the mammary glands - what changes in them?
For a more accurate understanding of the processes occurring in the organ, one must have an idea of its structure. The mammary gland secretes milk filled with nutrients. It consists of glandular tissue, divided into lobules. Each of them contains an excretory duct, which flow into each other, forming outflow paths for milk. In the end, they all join together and a few mouths and open at the top of the nipple..
Milk production is regulated by prolactin, the level of which is enhanced during lactation. The rest of the time this hormone goes to basic secretion, and therefore a little milk is formed in the gland. Since its volume is small, it is not released and absorbed back.
Why there is an expansion of the ducts of the breast
Ductectasia (ectasia) of the mammary glands develops as a result of:
- hormonal disorders;
- inflammatory processes in the chest;
- changes in the hormonal background in menopause;
- neoplasms of the breast.
Pathology equally often appears on the left and right. For hormonal disorders is characterized by two-way doktektaziya.
The main links of pathogenesis
The increased release of prolactin into the blood causes increased formation of viscous milk, from which clots form. They cover the excretory ducts and obstruct the outflow. This leads to an increase in pressure in the lumen of the duct and its dilatation.
After inflammation, spikes form, and the structure of the gland changes. Due to the deformation of the lobules the excretory ducts are squeezed, and the outflow of milk is hampered. For the same reason, development of dukectectasia after trauma is possible.
Neoplasms (tumors, polyps), located next to the areola, interfere with the passage of milk, as they squeeze the mouth of the duct or grow into the tissue. As a rule, in this case the mammary gland is strongly deformed, and the symptoms of dukectectasia go to the background.
Violation of the balance of hormones during the postmenopause or in pathologies of the organs of neuroendocrine regulation leads to an increase in the level of estrogen in the blood. It has a specific effect on the epithelium of the milk ducts:
- cells hypertrophy;
- increase in size;
- begin to intensively produce milk.
As a result, against the background of increased milk formation, narrow areas are formed, before which the lumen increases.
Clinical picture and symptoms
Ductectasia is manifested by local signs that arise due to deformation and changes in the structure of the excretory ducts. Symptomatic develops against a background of complete health, and often the patient does not immediately notice the above characteristics. The main symptoms are:
- shifting the nipple to the side;
- unexplained pain in the areola region;
- unpleasant sensations - a burning sensation, a dyscomfort, an itch;
- The nipple becomes entangled and may be slightly deformed;
- isolation of a small amount of white or yellow liquid.
Deformation and changes in the position of the nipple are associated with the accumulation of milk near the mouths of the ducts. Itching and discomfort occur due to tissue irritation at the secretion site.
The exact diagnosis is based on:
- clinical picture;
- Anamnesis, in which there are symptoms of concomitant disease;
- data of the doctor's examination.
Depending on the cause that led to doktektazii, the following methods of additional diagnostics are prescribed:
- determination of the level of hormones in the blood;
- Ultrasound - to clarify the localization of the neoplasm;
- bacteriological, microscopic examination of the evolving liquid.
The main method is mammography, that is, a radiographic examination of the mammary gland. With its help you can define:
- expansion and narrowing of the ducts;
- foci of inflammation and sclerosis;
Taking smears allows you to clarify the presence of inflammation. In addition, in the microbiological study determine the type of pathogen, which makes it possible to correctly select antibacterial agents. For more accurate diagnosis of the causes of narrowing of the ducts, specialists can use a biopsy to differentiate the type of tumor or exclude it.
Expansion of the ducts of the breast is one of the manifestations of the disease, that is, a symptom. Therefore, this pathology is treated not independently, but in combination with the underlying disease.
Conservative therapy is used when oncological diseases and mechanical obstructions in the ducts are excluded. In doing so, they use:
- antibiotics - cephalosporins, penicillins, etc .;
- vitamins of different groups - A, B, C;
- local treatment with bactericidal ointments;
- hormonal means;
- with a long course of inflammation in therapy include glucocorticoids.
If doktektaziya appeared due to squeezing the tissue tumor, the only way resection of the altered site. The deformity of the gland, leading to the displacement of its structures after sclerosis and chronic inflammation, is also treated surgically.
The amount of intervention depends on the size of the pathological object. Most often perform sectoral resection, less often - total removal of the breast together with lymph nodes. The latter is done with malignant tumors.
Ductectasia, associated with neurohumoral malfunctions, is treated with natural hormone substitutes. Therapy is carried out under careful control of the level of progesterone, estrogen and prolactin in the blood.
Despite the fact that duktectasia is not a separate disease, it requires attention and comprehensive treatment, as it often accompanies serious diseases. Folk methods of therapy in this pathology are ineffective.