Glioma of the brain
Glioma of the brain is a group of malignant neural tissue tumors that develop from auxiliary brain structures (glia). In the structure of oncological morbidity, these neoplasms are about 60%. Often gliomas are diagnosed in children and rank second among cancerous lesions of brain tissue.
Nosological names of gliomas tumors come from the type of cells that served as a source of pathological growth. For example, the oncology of astrocytes is called astrocytoma, and the malignant process in ependyma cells of the cerebral ventricles refers to ependymomas.
Depending on the origin of the tumor, glioma is usually divided into the following types:
- Astrocytomas. These tumors occur in 50% of clinical cases. The source of the mutation is in the white matter of the brain.
- Ependymoma. Specific tumor of the ventricular system of the brain, which is diagnosed in about 5-8% of cases.
Oligodendroglioma. According to the histological structure, this tumor consists of mutated oligodendrocytes. According to statistics, oligodendroglioma is found in 10% of patients with brain tumors.
- Oncology of the vascular system, a tumor in which there are extremely rare (1-2%).
- Mixed gliomas. In the structure of such neoplasms, cells of several brain tissues are present.
- Neuroepithelial glioma of the brain, the causes and origin of which has not been established to date.
- Brain gliomatosis.
According to the international classification, gliomas are also divided into stages of growth:
- Slowly developing gliomas of a benign nature with a relatively long life span of cancer patients.
- Bordered tumors with a high probability of malignant transformation.
- Gliomas with malignant structure.
- Rapidly growing gliomas, which are characterized by low survival rates of patients.
Symptoms of brain glioma
The clinical picture of glioma is formed on the basis of localization of malignant process and tumor volume. Symptoms of the disease include general and local manifestations. Often, such lesions are accompanied by chronic and intense migraines, which cause the patient to vomit and nausea. Also, periodic seizures are considered specific symptoms of glioma.
Focal manifestations of the tumor consist of the following symptoms:
- Disorders of speech, visual functions.
- The pathology of the muscular system in the form of paresis, paralysis and muscle weakness.
- Violations of coordination and gait of the patient.
- Mental anomalies.
In some cases, patients with gliomas of the brain suffer from increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus, which is associated with a violation of the microcirculation of the CSF.
Diagnosis of brain glioma
Glioma of the brain
Diagnosis of brain cancer begins with a neurologist who assesses the sensitive function of the skin, the state of reflexes and the tone of the muscular system. In the case of a pathology of the visual system, the patient should be consulted by an ophthalmologist.
After a primary neurologic examination, the patient is subjected to a spinal fluid puncture, the laboratory analysis of which allows finding out single cancer cells.
The most informative methods for detecting brain gliomas are X-ray studies, which include computer and magnetic resonance imaging. The result of such examinations makes it possible for the oncologist to study layered photographs of brain tissue. Radiology of the central nervous system establishes the location of the pathological focus and its exact dimensions.
How is it treated today?
With oncology of the brain, doctors apply all three classical methods of affecting the tumor: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
An up-to-date standard for anti-cancer treatment of gliomas is surgical intervention. Before and after a surgical operation, as a rule, cancer patients are exposed to radiation. Recently, the place of ionizing exposure is stereotactic therapy, which consists of high-precision irradiation of the cancerous focus by gamma radiation. This technique also allows treating patients with inoperable forms of tumors of the central nervous system. In complex therapy with gliomas, the oncologist also implements chemotherapy, as it is able to stabilize the growth of malignant neoplasm.
Glioma of the brain
Glioma of the brainand secondary carcinoma of the central nervous system for removal requires trepanation. To do this, the surgeon opens the skull to provide easy access to the area of operation. During the operation, the patient is excised as much as possible of the pathological tissues. Removal of all cancer cells is complicated by the close arrangement of blood vessels and vital brain centers. In each clinical case, surgical intervention restores the circulation of the CSF and eliminates the cause of the transmission of the brain tissue. The need for a surgical operation with gliomas is also dictated by the fact that the internal part of the tumor, as a rule, is insensitive to the action of cytostatic agents and ionizing irradiation.
It is important to know: What is dangerous and what consequences can the removal of a brain tumor lead to?
Stereotactic therapy of cerebral neoplasms is considered an innovative and promising technique, the essence of which lies in the computerized irradiation of the pathological focus. This treatment is absolutely bloodless and painless way to destroy cancer cells. The advantage of radiosurgery is the ability to perform surgery on hard-to-reach tumors and the absence of toxic effects on nearby healthy tissues.
Prognosis and survival
Forecast gliomas of the central nervous system, in general, is considered unfavorable. This is due to the fact that it is extremely rare for a patient with such a diagnosis to live to a five-year period.
Glioma of the brainhas negative consequences because of frequent relapses and aggressive growth of the tumor. To prolong the life of such patients is possible only with the early diagnosis of the tumor and the conduct of adequate anti-cancer therapy..