Why is the DNA of type 16 in men?
Table of contents
- Classification of viruses and the mechanism of penetration
- Manifestations of Bowen's disease
- Diagnosis and treatment
- Bovenoid papulosis
- Diagnosis and treatment
- Preventive actions
The share of viral diseases in the overall structure is very high. Among them, a special place is occupied by pathology, which arises as a result of the penetration of the human papillomavirus into the body. It is known that the infection of people with HPV is about 70%. However, most of them have no infection. Human papillomavirus is a special type of virus that can penetrate into the skin or mucous membranes of a person and disrupt the growth and division of cells. In men, papillomavirus can cause various diseases: warts, condylomas in the genital area, malignant neoplasms.
Currently, more than 500 varieties of this virus are known. HPV type 16 is the most dangerous, as it has high oncogenic properties and is capable of causing malignant diseases, including cancer in men. There are other types. It is important that HPV DNA can be present in the body of both an adult and a child. Very often, infection occurs even in childhood, when a certain type of virus penetrates through damaged skin. Let's consider in detail, what can lead to type 16 HPV DNA in men, the causes of the disease, what is the diagnosis and treatment.
Classification of viruses and the mechanism of penetration
There is a classification of these viruses by oncogeneity, that is, the ability to cause cancer. There are 4 types of viruses. The first group is the least dangerous, they never cause cancer. This includes HPV DNA of the first 5 types, 10, 28 and 49. The second group is capable of developing malignant neoplasms, but they are very rarely caused. In this list, such types of HPV as 6, 11, 42, 43 and others. The third type has medium oncogeneity. It represents a potential danger to infected people. This group includes types 26, 66 and 53. And the fourth, the most formidable group of papilloma viruses, the infection of which leads to a high probability of cancer, is represented by types 16, 18, 31 and others.
HPV 16 is the most important, because in men it can contribute to the development of such serious diseases as Bowen's disease and Bovenoid papulosis.For women, another pathology is characteristic, for example, cervical cancer. The human papilloma virus penetrates into tissues through abrasions, cuts and other injuries in childhood. In adults, the most important is the sexual path. In this case, the virus can be easily transferred to partners. All this puts him on a par with sexually transmitted infections due to his distribution mechanism. As a result of the penetration of HPV 16 cells in the affected area begin to actively share, which explains the main clinical manifestations of diseases.
Manifestations of Bowen's disease
In men with the penetration of DNA, HPV 16 may develop Bowen's disease. This disease is also called intraepithelial cancer. It is found in most cases in elderly people, more often in men than in women. Bowen's disease can be localized on the head, palms, but most often it affects the genitals in men. The most vulnerable area is the inner surface of the foreskin. The main reason for the development of this pathology in men is the virus of the papilloma type 16. Other provoking factors can be various skin diseases, the effect of certain chemicals (arsenic, tar), ionizing radiation and UV. Equally important are injuries of the skin, a decrease in immunity.
The doctor should know not only the treatment of this disease, but also how it manifests itself. Everything begins with the formation of a red spot on the affected area. After a while a plaque with scales appears, which go away well. Scales are whitish or yellowish in color. In their place, one can observe a wet wound surface. As the disease progresses on the plaque, areas of increased keratinization (hyperkeratosis) appear. They rise above the skin and can reach a few centimeters in size. Initially, this pathology is a precancerous condition, but it quickly leads to cancer. In this period, men develop ulcers. Of great importance is that the virus of the papilloma of this type does not manifest itself. Sick men feel healthy and do not consult a doctor for a long time.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis of Bowen's disease is based on external examination of the patient and the results of histological and cytological research. For this purpose, scraping is taken from the affected area. Often a biopsy is done. The presence of acanthosis, increased keratinization and parakeratosis allows accurate diagnosis. In addition, atypical cells that can have large nuclei are identified. It is important that Bowen's disease can easily be confused with other skin diseases. It must be distinguished from vulgar warts, seborrheic keratosis, bovenoid papulosis. Diagnosis involves the isolation of DNA of this type of pathogen. For this, a polymerase chain reaction is used.
This pathology progresses throughout life, but in most cases it does not have metastases to other organs. Bowen's disease can take the form of "cancer on the spot." Treatment largely depends on the stage of the disease and the size of the lesion. If there are small foci, then first of all use the application with fluorouracil ointment. If this method of treatment is ineffective, surgical intervention is used. There are several methods of removing neoplasm: exposure to cold (cryodestruction), the use of a laser. Such treatment is possible only when the skin is affected.
With mucous membranes, things are more complicated. In such a situation, close-focus fluoroscopy can be used. The effect can give photosensitizing therapy with the use of aminolevulinic acid and a laser. Of medicamental agents, a positive effect is given by Acitretin. The patient is recommended to use antiviral drugs ("Panavir"), drugs that increase immunity.
16 The type of HPV can be the cause of another, no less serious disease. This is Bovenoid papulosis. This ailment is more common in men and women in the period of life from 17 to 40 years. This is his difference from Bowen's disease. This type of disease is a precancerous condition. Papulosis is transmitted sexually. The most vulnerable group are those who lead a promiscuous sex life. Bovenoid papulosis is a rare pathology. The incubation period is 2-3 months, but it can last up to a year or more. This pathology, caused by type 16 HPV, is characterized by the appearance on the skin of men of various eruptions. It can be red spots, papules or plaques.
Elements are located separately, but can merge. Their dimensions reach from a few millimeters to 3 cm or more. It is important that patients do not experience pain or discomfort. If the inflammatory process develops, then pain can appear. Some patients are concerned about the itching. Morphological elements are localized in the perineum, in the folds, on the genitals. In men, the 16th type of HPV can affect the penis.
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Diagnosis and treatment
The human papillomavirus type 16 causes similar diseases in clinical manifestations, therefore it is very important to correctly diagnose. This is done based on the history, general examination and the results of histological and cytological research. Of great importance is PCR, with which it is possible to determine the type of pathogen. The material for the study are smears, blood, or scrapings from the affected skin. To exclude other diseases (for example, syphilis), a serological study is performed using RIF or other methods.
When examining cells from the material taken, a large number of epithelial cells are found that have bright areas around the nucleus. In addition, there are atypical cells in 2 nuclei. The difference from Bowen's disease is that atypical cells are not located in groups, they are distributed throughout the epidermis. Treatment of this pathology should be timely, because papulosis can quickly turn into cancer. From medications, cytostatics are used, for example, 5-fluorouracil. It is possible to use interferon by splitting the affected area. The general therapy with antiviral agents is shown. The most effective method of treatment is surgical. The same treatment is used as in Bowen's disease.
To avoid such diseases, which causes 16 type of virus papillomas, the following conditions must be observed.
- Compliance with personal hygiene. This applies to the use of common objects (washcloths, towels), visits to swimming pools, baths, saunas.
- Exclusion of promiscuity.
- Use of barrier methods of contraception (condom).
- To lead a healthy lifestyle, eliminating the use of alcohol, drugs, smoking. All this contributes to a decrease in immunity, which is a predisposing factor to the activation of the virus.
- The rational nutrition, a mode of work, physical activity has the certain value.
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There are vaccinations against certain types of HPV, but their effect on the body has not yet been studied well enough. Timely treatment of chronic diseases in men is of great importance. Thus, the human papilloma virus of any type can persist for many years in the body and not cause disturbances. Activation occurs when immunity decreases or under other favorable conditions.
16 The type of HPV is the most dangerous, since it has high oncogenic properties. 16 type causes such formidable precancerous diseases as Bowen's disease and Bovenoid papulosis.
This pathology can go unnoticed, so patients often go to the doctor too late, when the disease goes to cancer.
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It is very difficult to prevent HPV infection, but it is possible to avoid the development of the disease. Therefore, it is advisable to comply with all the preventive measures described above.