What is adnexitis in women: signs and treatment
Unfortunately, not all women realize that gynecological diseases can lead to sad consequences. To all this, any disease has unpleasant symptoms that cause painful and uncomfortable sensations. One of these ailments is adnexitis in women.
Causes of the disease
Many patients are frightened by such a diagnosis. Therefore it is important to understand what adnexitis is in women and what are its symptoms.
In medicine, adnexitis has another name - "salpingo-oophoritis." In translation into Russian, salpingitis means inflammation of the fallopian tube, and oophoritis speaks of an inflammatory process that occurs in the ovaries.
But what is this disease?Adnexitis refers to the diseases of the genital organs in women. The pathological process occurs in the appendages of the uterus, that is, in the ovaries and fallopian tubes. In the lumen of the tubes a purulent liquid accumulates.
The onset of inflammation in adnexitis in women begins with the penetration of bacteria into the mucous membrane of the fallopian tubes, where the involvement of the muscular and serous layer gradually occurs. After that the inflammatory process passes to a number of located tissues (ovaries and pelvic peritoneum). As a result, the ovary and the fallopian tube are soldered and form a single inflammatory conglomerate (TOO - tubo-ovarian formation). This leads to the development of adhesive processes, which limit the patency of the fallopian tubes.
The main reasons for the development of the disease are:
- entry into the body of pathogenic microorganisms (gonococcus, tuberculosis bacillus, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, etc.);
- activation of their own conditionally pathogenic flora (E. coli, staphylococcus, etc.);
- presence of an intrauterine device;
- presence of sexual relations with several men;
- hypothermia of the body;
- transferred diseases of female genital organs (cervicitis, endometritis);
- decreased immunity;
- heavy childbirth;
- trauma of internal genital organs;
- non-compliance with hygiene standards.
Symptomatology of the disease
Adnexitis has two variants of the course: acute and chronic.
The main symptoms of acute adnexitis are usually:
- elevated body temperature to thirty-nine degrees;
- manifestation of chills;
- painful sensations in the groin;
- an increase in appendages from one or both sides;
- when palpating, the patient may feel a sharp pain;
- the occurrence of bloody or purulent discharge from the vagina;
- manifestations of nausea or vomiting;
- violation of the menstrual cycle.
If you do not start timely treatment of acute adnexitis, the disease becomes chronic or serious complications begin. The therapeutic process is to take medication and lasts long enough.
The main symptoms of chronic adnexitis are usually:
- constant painful sensations of a dull character at the bottom of the abdomen, their strengthening occurs when the organism is undercooled;
- disorders of the menstrual cycle,
- decreased libido.
Also, if there is chronic adnexitis, there is a violation of the digestive function and the work of the urinary system.
If the patient ignores the signs of the disease, the chronic adnexitis leads to the most serious complications in the form of:
- ectopic pregnancy;
- spontaneous miscarriage;
- disturbance of the ovaries, which leads to disruption of the menstrual cycle;
- occurrence of periadoxitis;
- the formation of adhesive processes;
- Pipe obstruction;
- manifestations of chronic colitis, cholecystitis or pyelonephritis.
Types of adnexitis
The disease is divided into several types:
- Right-sided adnexitis. The inflammatory process occurs in the ovaries and the fallopian tube on the right side. Painful sensations are similar to the manifestation of appendicitis.
- Left-sided adnexitis. It is characterized by the onset of an inflammatory process in the left ovary and the fallopian tube. In this situation, the symptoms are similar to colitis.
- Two-sided adnexitis. Inflammatory process occurs immediately in two appendages. In this case, the patient feels pain in the abdomen, which is given to the anus and the vagina. If a woman has bilateral adnexitis, then this condition is considered dangerous. When the first symptoms appear, you need to urgently consult a doctor.
Two-sided adnexitis affects the appendages on both sides. He begins to develop in the fallopian tubes, then passes to the ovaries.
The main symptoms of acute bilateral adnexitis are usually:
- Increased body temperature.
- Pain in the groin.
- Great deterioration of the general condition. There is fatigue and dizziness. There may be nausea and vomiting.
- Malfunction of the menstrual cycle. During menstruation, a woman experiences severe discomfort.
In medicine, it is customary to distinguish three basic forms of bilateral adnexitis:
- Sharp. At this stage, the symptoms are very pronounced.
- Chronic. Perhaps an asymptomatic course.
Chronic periadenoxitis: symptoms
Chronic periadnexitis is considered one of the complications of untreated adnexitis. The risk group includes those patients who:
- frequent hypothermia;
- suffer from other diseases of the genitals;
- had surgical intervention on the appendages.
The main features include:
- periodic increase in body temperature to low-grade figures;
- occurrence of dizziness;
- the emergence of general weakness and decline of strength;
- lower abdominal pain;
- severe course of menstruation.
Sexual intercourse with chronic periadnexitis can be accompanied by painful sensations. It becomes difficult to exercise. There is a violation of the menstrual cycle, and the nature of the secretions varies periodically.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order not to face unpleasant consequences, you need to immediately contact the doctor. Based on complaints, the doctor performs a gynecological examination and appoints a survey. It includes:
- General blood analysis. It allows to reveal signs of inflammation.
- Bacteriological seeding from the cervical canal. It allows to identify the causative agent of the disease.
- Conducting ultrasound diagnosis. Using this method, the doctor can determine the size and condition of the ovaries.
- Conducting laparoscopy. This method of investigation is carried out in those situations if there are difficulties in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as well as suspected tumor adnexa.
- Hysterosalpingography. It allows to determine the patency of the fallopian tubes.
Treatment of adnexitis
With adnexitis, antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action are prescribed, taking into account the susceptibility of the identified microorganisms to the drugs.
Usually, with adnexitis, antibacterial agents that are assigned to the group are prescribed:
If there is a strong intoxication of the body, the patient is prescribed the administration of rheopolyglucin and a five percent glucose solution. Necessarily, the main treatment includes the use of vitamin complexes, immunostimulating agents, antihistamines and anesthetics. In acute adnexitis, it is recommended to apply cold to the suprapubic zone.
Using laparoscopy, you can not only locate the location of the inflammatory process, but also carry out therapeutic measures: irrigation of the fallopian tubes with antibiotic solution, separation of adhesions, elimination of pus from the abdominal cavity.
Also, local treatment is carried out by inserting candles with antibacterial components into the vagina. An excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property is possessed by rectal suppositories of Diclofenac or Voltaren.
The patient is recommended to inject tampons with honey, aloe juice, tea tree oil, herbal infusion into the vagina. Is inside they should not more than six hours. As compresses, you can use creams and oils of marigold or juniper.
Treatment of chronic adnexitis
If a woman has chronic adnexitis, then the treatment is:
- in the elimination of the inflammatory process;
- the elimination of pain;
- strengthening of immune function;
- renewal of the function of the reproductive organs;
- normalization of the endocrine and nervous systems.
Also, chronic adnexitis shows physioprocedures in the form of UHF, ultrasound, electrophoresis, mud therapy, the use of paraffin and trays with mineral water. In addition, vaginal irrigation and medical tampons are used.
In some cases, adnexitis shows surgical intervention. The procedure is assigned in cases where:
- there is a gap in the pyosalpinx;
- there is no effect from drug treatment and laparoscopic intervention;
- diffuse inflammation in the abdominal cavity is observed.
If the progression of the pathological process, the appendages have been deformed or altered, then they are removed.
That the disease does not bother the woman, you need to follow a few simple recommendations. This includes:
- adherence to hygiene measures;
- The wearing of underwear, which includes natural materials;
- refusal of casual sexual relations;
- conducting annual preventive examinations at the gynecologist;
- use of condoms to avoid infection.
Adnexitis is not a fatal disease, but it can lead to serious complications. To prevent this from happening, you should immediately contact the doctor if you show any signs. With timely treatment, the outcome of the disease is favorable. But there are also neglected situations, when the appendages and the uterus are removed. This can lead to complete infertility and the need for hormonal therapy.