Features of paroxysmal form of atrial fibrillation
During cardiac arrhythmia, the coherence of contractions in myocardial fibers is observed. The disease is considered one of the most common and causes a variety of pathologies, especially the respiratory and cardiovascular system.
Paroxysmal form of fibrillation is the most common form of pathology of atrial contractions. There is a stop in the operation of the sinus node and a chaotic contraction of the atrial myocytes with a frequency of 300-800 beats per minute. In fact, only two heart chambers are efficient and perform their functions properly. And the others only lead to malfunctions, adversely affecting the circulation.
- The concept and form of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
- Atrial fibrillation: causes of onset
- Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: symptomatology
- Paroxysmal arrhythmia: diagnosis of the disease
- Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: treatment
- Medication and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation therapy
- Electropulse therapeutic method of treatment of atrial fibrillation paroxysmal form
- Surgical intervention
- Preventive actions
The concept and form of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
The rate of heart reduction is 70 times per minute, which is due to the continuous connection of the organ with the sinus node. During fibrillation, other atrial cells take responsibility for the contraction.
Due to its duration, fibrillation has the following forms:
- The paroxysmal form of atrial fibrillation is characterized by the occurrence of an unforeseen arrhythmia. This attack can last from a couple of minutes to a whole week. How soon to stop the seizure depends on the quality and correctness of the first medical aid. Practice shows that the normalization of the rhythm of the heartbeat occurs during the day. But there are cases when the rhythm comes to normal on its own, without outside help.
- The persistent form of atrial fibrillation is characterized by a longer duration of the attack, which ranges from a week to six months. Treatment of the disease with medications or appropriate therapy. When the attack lasts for more than six months, surgical intervention is recommended.
- the constant form of atrial fibrillation is the alternation of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat and arrhythmia. And the last can last about a year. To address to a surgical intervention in this case it is not necessary: the necessary effect will not turn out, as this form is chronic. You can maintain a normal state with the help of medications and constant examination with a specialist.
With age, the propensity to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is higher..
Some medical workers distinguish between atrial fibrillation and flutter. Whereas the union of these concepts is called ciliary arrhythmia.
Atrial fibrillation: causes of onset
Violation of the rhythm of the heart with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is accompanied by physiological abnormalities in the patient's body, which are the cause of the disease in the future:
- functional disorders, which were formed after the transferred inflammation;
- ischemia of the heart;
- pathological abnormalities, including defects, that arose in the course of life and caused an increase in the chambers of the heart;
- hypertension in chronic form, which leads to an increase in the mass of the myocardium;
- hereditary cardiomyopathy.
There are a number of reasons that cause paroxysmal atrial flutter, provoked not by cardiac factors:
- alcohol abuse;
- lack of potassium and magnesium in the body;
- changes in the muscle of the heart that are formed as a result of lung disease;
- serious infectious diseases;
- excessive use of adrenomimetics and cardiac glycosides, including their use on a regular basis;
- problems with the nervous system, overstrain, stress, emotional exhaustion;
- hormonal failures;
- difficulties with health after surgical operations.
Important! Sometimes the circumstances develop so that to reveal the paroxysm of atrial fibrillation, more precisely, the main cause of the disease, is unrealistic. This applies to young people and adolescents..
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: symptomatology
Signs of cardiac arrhythmia may differ from patient to patient. Some people have pain in the heart. While most patients with arrhythmic flicker are characterized by the following symptoms:
- sudden single heart attack;
- sharp deterioration of health and weakness;
- lack of fresh air;
- feeling cold in the hands and feet;
- extreme sweating;
- trembling in the body and more.
In some cases, pale areas of the skin and cyanotic lips are observed.
With pathology in severe form, the symptomatology is aggravated. The following symptoms are observed:
- dizziness until loss of consciousness;
- panic attacks caused by a sharp deterioration in overall health and its normalization. As a result, the patient does not understand what is happening to him, and worries about his own life.
Important! In order not to happen, first of all - do not panic and turn to a specialist. Only after the examination (ECG) can you find out the cause of the symptoms and health problems..
As soon as paroxysmal rhythm disturbances, more precisely, seizures, are over, the patient has an increase in intestinal peristalsis. The latter causes profuse urination. When there is a significant decrease in the number of heartbeats, the patient has a decrease in blood flow to the brain. Therefore, there is a loss of consciousness, stopping breathing and not being felt by the pulse. In this case, the patient needs urgent resuscitation.
Paroxysmal arrhythmia: diagnosis of the disease
The main and main way to diagnose atrial flutter is electrocardiography. After all, only on the ECG, you can see the absence of the P wave in all compartments, instead of which waves with randomness appear. In this case, the intervals between their appearance will be different in length.
- Ventricular paroxysm of atrial fibrillation after a seizure shows an ST displacement and a negative prong. The probability of myocardial infarction in a patient increases, why the control of the health and dynamics of the disease is important.
- when a paroxysmal form of atrial fibrillation is observed at the initial stage, the ECG will fix a significant deformation of the R wave.
In addition to ECG for diagnosis can be used:
- holter monitoring;
- test on an electrocardiogram with physical exercises;
- listening to the heartbeat with a stethoscope;
- ultrasound examination of the heart (ECHO-KG). This laboratory test will determine the dimensions of the atria.
- Transoesophageal cardiac ultrasound is rarely prescribed because of the lack of instruments in the health facilities. This device will help to determine the presence or absence of thrombi in the organ.
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: treatment
Treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation depends on the length of the attack:
- if the last attack is not less than 48 hours by prescription, then the main task of doctors is to restore sinus rhythm;
- when more time has passed, the probability of embolic complications is so great that it is necessary to apply strong methods of treatment. Use anticoagulants, preventing the appearance of thrombi by forced blood thinning. And only after a month you can talk about restoring the rhythm of the heartbeat.
Medication and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation therapy
After arrhythmic atrial fibrillation, it is necessary to decide the question: how to treat atrial disease. Restoring the normal operation of the body with special medications is used.
Practice shows that such means are:
- digoxin, which will provide control of heart rate;
- cordarone, a positive moment in its use - a minimum of adverse reactions;
- Novocaineamide can lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure when injected into the blood.
Drug treatment is carried out intravenously by ambulance or hospital staff. The effectiveness of this method is more than 95%.
In case of acute attacks of the disease, the doctor may prescribe a propanorm to the patient. The drug is available in tablets. Therefore, the patient can independently take under the supervision of a specialist. It is prohibited to take medicines without prescribing a doctor. This can only exacerbate the situation.
Electropulse therapeutic method of treatment of atrial fibrillation paroxysmal form
If the previous method of treatment does not work, the attending physician may assign an electrical discharge - electropulse therapy:
- For the beginning the patient is immersed in anesthesia.
- Under the clavicle to the right, in the region of the rotor of the motor, two electrodes are connected.
- The medical worker switches the device to synchronization mode, so that the correspondence of the discharge and ventricular contraction is identical.
- The current should be in the range of 100-360 Joules.
- Electric discharge is performed.
In this case, the organism receives a reboot and the rhythm is restored. This method has almost one hundred percent efficiency.
If the conversion did not occur after the use of medication and other treatments, and the patient increasingly complains of attacks of the disease, surgical intervention can not be avoided. In the course of the operation, foci of pathological excitation of the heart muscle with a laser are cauterized. And to heal the artery, a puncture is performed with a special catheter.
Important! Smoking of paroxysm of atrial fibrillation is carried out by medical personnel to interrupt an attack of the disease. The latter bring the frequency of cuts to almost eight hundred units, becoming an automatic function. Formed an exciting wave, capturing not all the atrium, but only certain muscles, provides frequent fiber cuts.
Measures for the prevention of heart disease and hypertension:
- not to allow the abuse of alcoholic beverages, but it is best not to take it;
- not to do serious physical exertion. But walking in the open air with a leisurely pace is useful.
- eliminate fatty and salty foods from the diet. It is better to eat more fresh vegetables and fruits.
- as a preventive measure the attending physician can prescribe medications, for example: sulfate or asparaginate.