Cervical dysplasia, prognosis and treatment

Dysplasia of the cervix is ​​called changes in the mucous membrane of the cervix. It is also called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or CIN). This condition is considered a precancerous disease. In the absence of treatment, CIN can pass into cervical cancer.

There are several degrees, each of which depends on the depth of tissue damage. CIN I (early stage of the disease) is successfully treated, the main thing is to start treatment in time. This pathology is quite common. Women at the age of up to thirty are at risk of the disease. This disease is very insidious, because in the affected organ there are cells that are able to degenerate into cancerous and develop into cancer. Therefore, you should not miss the examination of a gynecologist. At the first signs of dysplasia, you should immediately begin treatment.

Causes

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The human papilloma virus is the main cause of the disease. There are also factors that provoke the disease:

  • weakened immunity;
  • inflammation of the genitals;
  • heredity;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • smoking;
  • taking oral contraceptives for a long time;
  • sexually transmitted infections.
  • early onset of sexual activity;
  • promiscuous sexual intercourse;
  • multiple and traumatic births;
  • numerous abortions;
  • irrational nutrition;
  • trauma of the cervix.

Classification of CIN:

  • CIN I - defeat of a third of the epithelium;
  • CIN II - change of two thirds of tissues;
  • CIN III - the defeat of most of the epithelium of the cervix.

The consequences directly depend on the degree of the disease. The more neglected the process, the worse the prognosis and the less chance of a successful outcome of the disease. With CIN III there is a high risk of developing cervical cancer.

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CIN I - easy stage

Cervical dysplasia of the 1st degree (mild dysplasia). Affected areas occupy up to one third of the distance from the basal membrane to the epithelial surface. In most cases at this stage the disease is asymptomatic, which makes it difficult to diagnose the disease and prevents timely treatment.

CIN I often occurs against the background of other diseases of the cervix: erosion (ectopia), leukoplakia, metaplasia, etc. At the slightest suspicion of pathology, go through a full diagnosis with a gynecologist and begin treatment. The sooner the therapy is carried out, the better!

It is worth paying attention to the following symptoms:

  • unpleasant sensations in the genitals in the form of itching and burning;
  • vaginal discharge from unnatural color;
  • bleeding;
  • pain during sexual intercourse;
  • formation of papillomas.

To confirm the diagnosis, you need to pass a number of tests, including a smear on oncocytology, go through colposcopy (under a microscope), as well as a biopsy. According to the indications, ultrasound of the pelvic organs is prescribed.

When gynecological examination draw attention to areas of whitish epithelium (focal hyperplasia) in the form of plaques. When carrying out special samples, segments of multilayer epithelium with uneven staining are identified. The cylindrical epithelium is defined in the cervical canal.

Colposcopic signs of CIN and cancer changes:

  • leukoplakia;
  • punctuation;
  • mosaic;
  • iodnegative tracts;
  • acetobelic epithelium;
  • dyskaryosis;
  • glandular hyperplasia;
  • sites of atypia;
  • other abnormal colposcopic features.

For CIN I, a monomorphism of changes in the epithelium and vessels is characteristic. In the presence of polymorphism, they speak of CIN II and III. Any dysfunction and a change in the structure of the epithelium is an occasion to go through an additional examination with a gynecologist. After the treatment, a repeated control analysis is assigned.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia of the 1st degree includes:

  • medicamental therapy: anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • correction of hormonal and immune disorders;
  • restoration of the vaginal microflora;
  • drugs that accelerate the healing of the cervix (Colpocid, etc.).

Surgical treatment is possible in several versions:

  • radio wave therapy;
  • diathermocoagulation;
  • cryodestruction;
  • laser coagulation;
  • argon-plasma coagulation.

Expectant tactics are not shown. In the absence of therapy, the disease will progress, which will inevitably lead to the development of complications. Cervical cancer that has arisen against the background of CIN, is dangerous for a woman's life, so it's not worth to delay with treatment. With timely therapy, the likelihood of switching to cancer is low. In the future, a woman can live a full life and give birth to healthy children.

The choice of method will depend on the technical capabilities of the clinic and the features of the process flow. Cauterization leaves scars on the uterus, as a result of which the body loses its elasticity. Later, complications may occur during pregnancy and childbirth. Treatment with radio waves does not affect the childbearing function. With this method of treatment, scars do not remain. Currently, this method is more preferable. Without treatment, the disease progresses.

CIN II - moderate stage

Cervical dysplasia of the 2nd degree is considered a moderate (middle) stage. Seventy percent of the body is affected at this stage of the disease. This pathology is revealed when viewed by mirrors. This degree of disease requires an in-depth examination from the woman with additional analyzes (colposcopy with Schiller's test, endocervical curettage). Need advice oncologist.

Waiting tactics are allowed for pregnant women. In this case, you need to regularly take tests. This stage of the disease does not reduce the woman's ability to conceive. A woman can be pregnant with this disease.
Cervical dysplasia of the 2nd degree always requires surgical treatment (resection, conization). Treatment of the second degree of dysplasia is based on exposure to cold (the areas affected by dysplasia are frozen) or heat (application of current). Laser treatment is also used. The laser destroys the affected areas of the cervix. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. In modern medicine for the treatment of CIN, the radio wave device "Surgitron" and other progressive techniques are actively used.

CIN II can be an indication for surgical treatment:

  • conization (cone-shaped excision of the affected area - electroconitization or electro-diathermoconation);
  • excision (radio wave, electroexcitation).

The choice of method will depend on the severity of the pathological process and the concomitant pathology.

CIN III - severe cervical dysplasia

Dysplasia of the cervix of the third degree is accompanied by pulling and aching pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort in the genital area, secretions from the vagina. This stage is considered the most severe and dangerous - it is a precancerous stage. There are additional studies to identify cancer cells.

In the third stage of the disease, surgical intervention is used. Removed part of the organ affected by dysplasia (conization of the cervix). In especially severe cases, when cancer cells already appear, the organ is completely removed. In the future, pregnancy may require an IVF procedure.

The consequences of CIN III can be very difficult. In the future, dysplasia threatens the development of cervical cancer, the transition of the process to the body of the uterus and neighboring organs. This condition may require the complete removal of the cervix and the entire uterus (amputation or extirpation).

After surgical intervention, the healing period lasts about a month. During the recovery period, sexual intercourse, physical activity, use of hygienic tampons, visiting the sauna should be completely ruled out. Reception of a bath also needs to be excluded (only the shower is allowed).

Home remedies for dysplasia

With cervical dysplasia of the first and second degrees, folk remedies are used to help alleviate the course of the disease. They do not replace the main treatment, but can be used to eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of the disease.

  • Treatment of pine buds. Pine buds are crushed. Then a tablespoon of raw material is brewed with a glass of boiling water. And for two minutes cook on low heat cooked. This broth is used as a syringing and bath. The procedure is carried out until complete recovery.
  • Calendula. Plant flowers mixed with rose hips and nettle leaves. Add chopped licorice root, yarrow and taivolgu. All mix. Next, a tablespoon of collection pour a glass of boiling water and insist half an hour. Cooled infusion is used as a syringing. The procedure should be conducted up to four times a day. This broth is also used as tampons, which are left inside for half an hour.
  • To treat the disease apply and aloe, which helps to remove inflammation. To do this, you need to crush a clean aloe leaf before forming the juice. The tampon is soaked in the resulting juice. These actions must be performed in the morning and evening for one month.
  • For tampons, propolis can also be used. Ten grams of propolis is mixed with a packet of butter. Then cook this mixture for fifteen minutes over low heat. Decoction filter and soak the swab. Keep the tampon for half an hour in a relaxed state. The course of treatment is one month.
  • Sea buckthorn oil is also used to treat the disease. Tampons with this oil are used for twelve days.
  • Decoction of St. John's wort is also used for syringing. Pour four tablespoons of dry St. John's wort into two liters of water. Boil it for about ten minutes over low heat. Insist for about half an hour. Strain.

It should be remembered that the treatment of home remedies is resorted only after consultation with a doctor. Dysplasia of any degree can not be treated only by folk remedies, as this leads to complications and problems for conception in the future.


Which treatment to choose

Cauterization by laser, radio waves and conization of the cervix are the safest methods of treating this disease. These methods do not leave scars and scars, the organ retains its functions.

  • The radio wave method helps to increase the energy of the altered cells. This leads to the destruction of the affected cell. This method is fast, but painful. Recovery takes two to three months.
  • Laser treatment is a painless and quick method of treatment. This method of treatment does not leave scarring and practically does not give complications. Within one to two months, recovery occurs.
  • Konenization is used in the II-III stage of the disease. During the operation, a part of the affected cervix is ​​removed. This method allows you to remove the affected cells throughout the thickness of the epithelium. With this method, a woman can become pregnant. But in such cases, sutures are applied to prevent premature birth.

In the treatment, additional therapy is performed, based on normal tissue regeneration. Prescribe a course of vitamins B and E, as well as omega-3 acids, selenium and fiber. Completely from medicines to refuse it will not turn out, as there is also conservative treatment by means of the preparations based on grasses. With relapse of the disease, mandatory surgical treatment is indicated.

With the timely detection of the disease and treatment, the prognosis is favorable. It is important to visit the gynecologist regularly!

Prevention

Prevention is the proper hygiene of the body, especially the genitals, a healthy lifestyle, one sexual partner.