How is a surgical abortion performed?

Abortion is a surgical procedure that is performed to remove the embryo. Surgical abortion involves causing significant trauma to the organs of the reproductive system women, therefore, if it is necessary to carry out the operation, it is safer to make it by the vacuum method on early term.

For some women, clarifying information about how to make an abortion, what complications it can cause, is the decisive argument against abortion. In any case, one should not rely entirely on the opinions of those who did such an operation, it is important to trust your health only to specialized clinics with competent qualified specialists.

The concept of surgical abortion


Surgical, or instrumental abortion is an operation to remove the fetal egg for the artificial termination of pregnancy and to purify the uterine cavity with incomplete miscarriage. The procedure for abortion is performed by scraping the uterine mucosa through an enlarged cervical canal. This type of surgery poses a great threat to the health of women, but is the only possible in the case of refusal to carry the fetus for more than 7 weeks.


Instrumental abortion is performed at the request of a pregnant woman, if the period does not exceed 12 weeks. If there are medical indications that prevent fetal bearing, or social reasons, such as rape, pregnancy can be interrupted before the 22nd week.


  • unwillingness of a woman to have a child;
  • rape;
  • deprivation of parental rights:
  • death of a spouse during pregnancy:
  • diseases that prevent fetal growth and pose a threat to the life of a pregnant woman (oncological diseases, diabetes mellitus in severe form, heart defects, etc.);
  • alcoholic, narcotic dependence of the future mother;
  • infections that can affect the development of the fetus (HIV, hepatitis, etc.);
  • taking drugs with a teratogenic effect;
  • malformations of the fetus, detected by ultrasound;
  • death of the fetus.


  • venereal diseases in acute stage;
  • inflammatory processes occurring in the ovaries, in the uterus;
  • blood clotting pathology;
  • allergic reactions to pain medications.

In these situations, the issue of abortion is decided individually. In some cases, additional preparation is required for the procedure.

It is not recommended to perform instrumental abortion in the case of the first pregnancy in a Rh-negative woman, because there is a high risk of fetal pathology in subsequent pregnancies.


The doctor is obliged to tell in detail about how to make an abortion, what it has health consequences.

If a woman is determined to interrupt pregnancy, it is necessary to pass the tests to:

  • syphilis, hepatitis C and B, HIV;
  • HCG;
  • blood type;
  • Rhesus factor;
  • general and biochemical blood tests;
  • general urine analysis;
  • smear on the flora;
  • fluorography;
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
  • ECG and therapist consultation;
  • gynecological examination.

How do instrumental abortion?

If the results of the tests are normal, the woman is referred to a hospital. The doctor performs a gynecological examination, the patient gives written consent to the abortion, confirming that she is familiar with the way the abortion is done, what its consequences are.

The patient is placed in a common ward or separate, if such a service is paid. Then it is sent to the operating room, where they make either free local anesthesia, or a paid general intravenous. With local anesthesia, the patient will be as if in a half-sleep, with the general - fall asleep.

So, how dosurgical abortion?

  1. If the gestation period does not exceed 12 weeks, the fetus is small enough to be removed by the curette. Curette is a special tool reminiscent of a sharp spoon. Therefore, the doctor first uses a vacuum pump, which destroys the fetus and removes its parts through the pump tube. Then the gynecologist conducts scraping of the uterus, removing the remains of the embryo that has collapsed.
  2. If the gestation period is more than 12 weeks, the cervical canal should be significantly enlarged to extract the fetus. Through the dilated cervix, the instrument destroys the embryo and extracts large parts with forceps. The small parts are removed by a vacuum pump. Then the scraping of the mucous uterine neck is performed.

The process lasts about half an hour. After surgical abortion, the patient remains in the hospital for several hours under the supervision of doctors. A gynecologist prescribes drugs that help reduce uterus, antibiotics.

Postoperative period

Within two weeks a woman is not allowed to have sex, strong physical activity, bathing, swimming in open water. After the abortion, the gynecologist recommends monitoring the body temperature, as well as a test for HCG, in order to make sure that the fetus is completely removed. You can overweight, so you need to eat right. Some women need help from a psychologist.

7 days after surgical abortion, a gynecological examination and ultrasound should be performed.

The gynecologist will give recommendations on the choice of method of contraception. As a rule, hormonal contraceptives are prescribed, since they help to normalize the hormonal background and reliably protect against unwanted pregnancy. How to choose the right contraceptive, how to apply it, tell the doctor.

Pregnancy after instrumental abortion

Menstrual bleeding after abortion should be expected on the 25th-35th day. Within six months after surgical abortion it is desirable to be protected, since a new one, albeit desired, pregnancy, possibly, lead to problems of gestation, the body is not completely recovered. After 3-6 months the menstrual cycle is adjusted, the epithelium of the uterus comes back to normal, in the absence of complications, you can get pregnant without fear.


Not all women who decide to terminate pregnancy understand how abortion can affect their health. Instrumental abortion often causes serious complications:

  1. Dizziness, fever, malaise.
  2. Abundant bleeding with painful sensations in the perineum, in the abdomen. In the worst case, this entails the removal of the uterus.
  3. Absence of secretions during spasm of the uterine neck. This can cause an inflammatory process. It is necessary to perform an ultrasound examination of the small pelvis after surgical abortion.
  4. A positive pregnancy test indicates an incomplete abortion. An additional procedure is required because a partially removed embryo can develop with severe abnormalities.
  5. Endometritis, as well as infection of blood (sepsis) with infection of the uterine cavity. In order to avoid this, abortion should be done in absolutely sterile conditions;
  6. Injury of the cervix as a result of unskilled doctors can cause problems in bearing in the future.
  7. Infertility develops when the surface of the uterus is so damaged that during a new pregnancy the embryo is unable to attach to it.
  8. The appearance of placental polyp as a result of the fact that part of the villus of the chorion did not retire at scraping. This can be accompanied by prolonged discharge, pain.

Should I have an abortion?

When deciding on the termination of pregnancy, it is important to carefully think everything over, do not be afraid to consult with relatives. If there are serious medical contraindications for bearing a child, complex malformations of the fetus, or conception occurred as a result of rape, then the renunciation of pregnancy may be necessary measure.

Abortion, made in a good clinic by experienced doctors, can have minimal negative consequences for health. But if the reasons are only doubts about the time of birth, fear of condemnation by others, etc., then abortion can become a mistake, sometimes fatal.