Cancer of lymph nodes. How many live, treatment, reasons
The protective function of the human body, in general, is placed on the lymphatic system, which consists of lymph nodes and a branched vascular network. It is in the lymph nodes that specific immune cells form - lymphocytes, which form the primary barrier when a virus or bacterial infection enters the body.
The highest concentration of lymph nodes is observed in the axillary, inguinal and cervical regions. Malignant damage to this system is approximately 4% of all cancers. The disease can be concentrated in one or more sites.
Lymph node cancercan proceed as an independent disease in which the primary foci of cancer tissues are diagnosed only in the lymphatic system, and in the form of metastases of distant organs and systems.
Cancer of lymph nodes - causes of development
It is accepted to distinguish three main causes of the development of lymphoid cancer:
- Systemic diseases of the body, which reduce the specific protective abilities of immunity.
- Infection with such viral infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus and Epstein-Barr virus.
- Frequent contact with substances with carcinogenic properties (pesticides, herbicides).
Also, there are certain risk factors that contribute to the development of oncology of the lymphatic system:
- People of young and old age are especially prone to cancerous degeneration of lymph nodes in connection with the physiological reconstruction of the immune system that is taking place in this period.
- Late first births are also among the factors that can provoke a malfunction in the lymphoid tissue and causelymph node cancer.
- Family predisposition. The existence of cancer in one of the direct relatives several times increases the susceptibility to the development of genetic mutations.
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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Lymphatic Cancer
A doctor oncologist may suspect the presence of oncology of lymphoid tissue in the presence of local and general symptoms of the disease.
Local signs of a tumor are:
- increase nodes;
- increased sweating at night;
- slight increase in body temperature;
- discomfort in the affected area.
The general symptomatology of the disease manifests itself in the form of loss of appetite and, as a result, a sharp loss of body weight, anemia of blood, disorders in the digestive and respiratory systems.
To clarify the diagnosis, doctors resort to:
- Ultrasound study, the purpose of which is to establish the localization and structure of a cancerous tumor.
- Magnetic resonance imaging. The technique consists in carrying out layer-by-layer scanning of the human body, as a result of which the physician can visually observe the boundaries of pathology and its distribution to nearby tissues.
- Biopsy. This laboratory study of a small area of mutated tissue allows you to establish the stage and type of tumor.
Methods of treatment of lymph node cancer
Surgical removal of the affected nodes is considered the most effective method of treatment. During surgical intervention, regional lymph nodes located in the immediate vicinity of the lesion are also subject to excision. Carrying out such a radical removal is necessary to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
In the later stages of oncology, the patient is mainly offered a course of radiation therapy, which consists in exposure to a tumor with highly active X-rays, capable of destroying cancer cells or slowing down growth pathology.
In oncologic practice, there is still a chemotherapeutic treatment, which consists in taking cytotoxic drugs. This technique has a systemic effect in cancer of lymphoid tissue and is performed in the preoperative and postoperative cycle.
Modern research indicates a high efficiency of combining surgical intervention and chemotherapy.
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The prognosis of the consequences of treating a cancerous lymphatic system depends on the stage of the disease on which the diagnosis occurred.
Doctors distinguish the following stages of lymphomas:
- The pathological process is in one area of the lymph nodes.
- Cancerous tumor spread to several lymph nodes in the area of the diaphragm, thoracic cavity or peritoneum.
- Malignant cells are localized on both sides of the diaphragm.
- Metastatic disease is observed in the bone marrow, kidney and liver.
To the question "cancer of lymph nodes - how many live?"Can be answered as follows:
- Cancer at the first stage with full treatment is completely curable.
- In the second and third stages of the pathology, the five-year postoperative survival rate is 40-60%.
- Diagnosis of the tumor in later stages carries an unfavorable outcome of treatment, which is reflected in 10% of patients' survival.