Causes of extensive myocardial infarction and accompanying symptoms of an attack
Problems in the functioning of the human cardiovascular system can lead to the development of a dangerous condition - myocardial infarction. The main reasons for its occurrence, doctors called ischemic heart disease and its primary source - thrombosis of the coronary artery and the resulting lack of blood supply to the heart. An extensive myocardial infarction has dangerous consequences for the further life of a person.
What is an extensive heart attack? This expression is found in the vocabulary of many people. Most associate this phrase with the name of the disease, the diagnosis. Professional medical terminology does not contain the notion of "extensive myocardial infarction." It is used to explain to the patient or his relatives the peculiarities of the current state of the patient, when there is a significant damage to the muscle tissue of the heart..
Life of people after extensive myocardial infarctionbecomes special, requires compliance with restrictions, rules that will help you live the period after the illness is most comfortable.
- Why there is a disease: factors-provokers of an infarction
- Types of defeats of the heart muscles with extensive infarction
- Symptoms that help determine the onset of the disease
- Signs of atypical forms of the disease
- Emergency medical actions at home, further treatment in the clinic, in a sanatorium
- Restorative period after a heart attack at home
Why there is a disease: factors-provokers of an infarction
There are the main and secondary causes of a large heart attack. The main one is arteriosclerosis. As a result of this disease, patients have a narrowing of the vessels due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. They become an obstacle to normal blood circulation, because of their appearance, the heart does not get the oxygen necessary for its normal functioning.
The appearance of signs of a heart attack is provoked by other dangerous factors, external and internal:
- Smoking - the result of this negative process is the narrowing of the vessels of the smoker, while the blood flow to the heart, the saturation of this body with oxygen becomes critical, which often leads to the appearance of areas of the heart with necrotic changes;
- the use of alcoholic drinks leads to an increase in blood pressure, the composition of the blood changes, negatively acting on the condition of the wall myocardium; alcohol has a bad effect on liver function, disrupting the function of fat splitting, which causes plaques on the walls vessels;
- the presence of the patient's diseases - ischemic disease, angina pectoris, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, changes in kidney function, obesity;
- sedentary lifestyle, neglect of physical activity, limited stay in the fresh air;
- excessive physical activity and heavy loads in sports;
- frequent stressful conditions, as a result of which there is a narrowing of the vessels;
- hereditary or genetic predisposition to diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Signs of an extensive heart attack are often found in men. This is explained by the fact that the male part of the population often leads an unhealthy lifestyle, their work is associated with the performance of hard work. Young people have fewer symptoms than middle-aged people.
Types of defeats of the heart muscles with extensive infarction
In practice, doctors distinguish several types of myocardial infarction, which is commonly called extensive, depending on the zone of location, the degree of necrosis of the heart muscles. Defeat is divided into the following types:
- if the work of several cardiac arteries is disrupted, a simultaneous infarction of the anterior and posterior walls of the heart occurs, which is called circular;
- which occurs in several zones of the heart - the apex, lateral or anterior, while the possibility of the work of certain areas of the heart muscles remains, this type of disease is called a large focal infarction;
- if the heart muscle of the site of the heart wall is covered by a heart attack along its entire thickness, there is a complete cessation the work of a certain heart zone, for example, an extensive infarction of the anterior wall, this kind of lesion is called transmural.
The degree of heart damage depends on many factors. The main one is the length of time from the termination of the saturation of the organ with blood before the beginning of medical care.
Arrangement of thrombus in the cardiac artery, the presence of a gap between the wall of the vessel and a thrombus, features of the structure of the heart blood vessels, the presence of heart disease before the onset of an infarcted condition often determine the extent and degree of damage to the heart, its muscular tissue..
Symptoms that help determine the onset of the disease
In order not to miss the onset of an infarction, it is important to know the first signs of the manifestation of the disease. Often they are not associated with pain in the heart, so patients do not correlate them with the negative changes in this organ or the state of the vessels. Pre-infarction can be expressed by such symptoms:
- occurrence of unpleasant, pulling stresses in the legs or hands;
- presence of pain in the heart area or under the shoulder blades;
- sore throat without other signs of colds;
- sudden, recurrent abdominal pain.
A defining sign for a large heart attack is an unbearable, sharp pain in the chest area. Her attack can take different time intervals - from 10 minutes to 2-3 hours.
Pain symptoms in the state of a heart attack have the following distinguishing features:
- are expressed in high intensity;
- last from 15 to 30 minutes, persist throughout the time, can be amplified;
- pain sensations are localized in the sternum or behind it, with pain in the left shoulder blade, shoulders, neck, lower jaw, toothache;
- after using nitroglycerin (the tablet is placed under the tongue) do not stop.
During the pain period, people have a fear of death, often they fall into a panic state, there is a violation of cardiac activity..
These signs may be accompanied by other conditions:
- nausea, sometimes with vomiting;
- sensation of numbness of the upper part of the trunk;
- arrhythmic cardiac activity;
- chills, cold sweat;
- weakness in the body, sensation of "cotton feet
- blood pressure indicators can be normal or increased.
Symptoms of a heart attack in men are more common than in women. On how quickly the extensive heart attack is diagnosed, its consequences are corrected, the chances of surviving in patients are increasing.
Signs of atypical forms of the disease
An extensive heart attack has several atypical forms that differ significantly from those of a typical form of the disease. Isolate cerebral, angiogenic, asmatical and abdominal form of myocardial infarction.
Signs of the cerebral form in many manifestations are similar to the signs that arise in people with a violation of blood supply to the brain. They are expressed in dizziness, a brief loss of consciousness is possible. Patients develop edema, fluid can accumulate in the abdominal cavity.
The most widespread is the religious form. Patients have a severe cough, accompanied by shortness of breath, pale skin, anxiety, fear of dying. The main sign is severe pain in the sternum and behind it. Pain sensations are removed when taking nitrogrycerin.
A rare atypical form of the infarction is abdominal. With her expressed symptoms, in many ways similar to the signs of pancreatitis - acute pain in the form of fights at the top of the abdomen, increased gassing in the intestines and diarrhea, accompanied by vomiting, nausea and hiccough.
With another form of infarction - asthmatic, the symptoms resemble an attack of bronchial asthma. In this case, the patient experiences increasing shortness of breath, changes the nature of his breathing - it becomes noisy, hoarse, bubbling. Respiratory changes are accompanied by a painful expression of the face, pallor, cyanotic lips, the appearance of cold sweat. Then there is a cough with the release of foamy sputum pinkish hue, sometimes with the presence of blood..
In people with diabetes, myocardial infarction can occur asymptomatically. For such patients, there is a lack of severe pain in the thoracic region due to changes in the state of the vessels or nerve endings..
The earlier identified the above signs of a dangerous condition, the higher the likelihood of a favorable outcome and survival of the patient. Further clinical diagnosis consists of ECG procedure, appointment of echocardiography, coronary angiography, clinical blood tests. The doctor must file a patient's medical history.
Emergency medical actions at home, further treatment in the clinic, in a sanatorium
The consequences of an extensive heart attack can be the most sad, often as a result of it, the death of a person. The possibility of survival of the patient depends on how quickly and qualitatively the pre-medical, first and medical help is rendered.
First aid is consistently following the actions of relatives who live next to the patient:
- call an ambulance;
- the person should be seated or laid, the patient's legs should be bent at the knees;
- create conditions for free entry into the premises of fresh air, loosen the tie or collar of clothing;
- It is allowed to give the patient one tablet of nitroglycerin for its resorption, it is possible to use aspirin in a dose of not more than 300 milligrams;
- if a person is in a faint - throw his head up;
- when cardiac arrest, it becomes necessary to perform artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
Then the patient is transferred to the specialists of the ambulance, which relieve the pain, perform the procedure removal of the electrocardiogram, medically removes attacks of fear or panic, hospitalized in a therapeutic institution.
To the consequences of extensive heart attack carried the least harm to the human body, the actions of cardiologists should be directed to the following:
- selection of individual therapy with the use of medications for blood thinning, prevention of blood clots, anesthesia, normalization of the heart;
- observance of complete emotional rest in the patient, bed rest, the patient is forbidden to walk in the first days after a heart attack;
- control over the work of the patient's organs and systems, treatment of existing diseases;
- strict diet.
Early recovery in a patient is facilitated by aftercare in a sanatorium. Treatment in a sanatorium for extensive myocardial infarction is the main prescription of the rehabilitation program. It is important that in the sanatorium the diet will be adjusted, an individual diet will be drawn up, strictly prescribing what you can eat to the patient. Employees working here tell how to live on, write out the necessary medications and vitamin supplements.
Restorative period after a heart attack at home
How many live after a large heart attack, largely depends on the implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor, the further behavior of the person who transferred him. Rehabilitation and recovery after an extensive heart attack means the unconditional fulfillment of all prescriptions.
Many people who have suffered a heart attack ask doctors whether it is possible to smoke or drink alcohol after a previous illness. The answer is unequivocal - one should forget about such negative habits forever..
Moderate physical load, a complex of restorative physical education are new useful habits that should give a favorable prognosis for the life of a person who has undergone an extensive heart attack..
Diet is an important preventive measure. After a recent heart attack, it is recommended to eat foods with a lower content of animal fat and cholesterol, there are more vegetables, fruits, berries. Fried, salted dishes, smoked diet does not provide. Such a diet after an infarction is established forever.
Life after a massive heart attack can be long and pleasant. Observe the recommendations and requirements of doctors the patient begins immediately after he was discharged from the medical institution, they should be followed for life.
More information about infarction can be learned from the video:.. .