Danger of coronary heart disease, the causes of its development and treatment
To date, cardiovascular disease is considered one of the most common. Practically 80 percent of people suffer from them. We will consider such a pathology as ischemic heart disease.
- What is ischemia of the heart, and what is it dangerous?
- Causes of IHD
- Main signs of coronary heart disease
- Diagnosis of coronary heart disease
- How to treat ischemic heart disease?
- Indirect myocardial revascularization by laser
- Complications of IHD
- First aid in CHD
- How many live with ischemic heart disease?
What is ischemia of the heart, and what is it dangerous?
Ischemic or coronary heart disease (ischemic heart disease or CHD) represents a pathological process that affects the myocardium due to a violation of normal blood flow in the coronary arteries. Ischemia 1 degree is practically not manifested. It does not have pronounced signs, because of what the treatment is postponed indefinitely. Over time, coronary heart disease will manifest symptoms, but treatment will have to start urgently. In this case, medication or surgical intervention will be required - depends on the severity of the disease, for example: IHD of 3rd degree - risk 4.
The danger of ischemia is that the disease abruptly passes into a serious stage. And if you can not cure coronary heart disease in time, it can cause myocardial infarction, heart failure in chronic form and the failure of the rhythm of contractions of the heart. But worse, the result of this inaction can be disability and even the death of the patient.
Causes of IHD
- atherosclerosis - the pathology of the heart, accompanied by the appearance of cholesterol plaques in the arteries. The latter interfere with normal blood flow, and certain areas of the heart muscle do not receive the necessary amount of nutrients and oxygen.
- ischemia of the second degree can be caused by an incorrect regime of the day and nutrition;
- alcohol abuse and smoking;
- The likelihood of the appearance of the disease largely depends on the way of life: if it is inactive or substantial and constant physical activity is observed;
- large weight of the patient. This greatly complicates the therapy and prevents you from living happily ever after.
- grade 2 ischemia may occur with diabetes mellitus;
- Psychosomatic disorders interfere with curing ischemia and can calmly become its main cause.
Main signs of coronary heart disease
Clinical manifestations of IHD at the initial stage suggest a general deterioration in health and severity. But these signs are somewhat subjective, and you can not rely on them. But the sooner a person turns to it and turns to a doctor, the better for him. Only a cardiologist will diagnose "ischemic heart disease and then you can start treatment.
The pathogenesis of coronary heart disease can be accompanied by a patient at the time of physical and emotional stress. Then these signs make themselves felt at rest, when there are no weighty reasons. Any pain in the chest region, which are monotonous, is an obvious reason to consult a cardiologist..
Terms: Pathogenesis is a mechanism for the appearance and further development of the disease, including its separate manifestation..
Coronary heart disease is different in wave form: a calm and asymptomatic course can dramatically change into an acute attack. The development and treatment of ischemia can last for decades. In this case, the formulation of the diagnosis and severity of IHD may change. This means that ischemia of the heart has distinctive symptoms and treatment, which completely depend on the form of the disease and its severity.
The most common symptoms in the order of their severity:
- pain in the chest region, which most often affects the left upper limb of the patient and shoulder;
- feeling of heaviness behind the sternum;
- general deterioration in health and fatigue;
- apathetic condition;
- increased sweating;
- irregular heartbeat failure;
- The psychosomatic illness involves a panic state, a sense of fear and anxiety, which in fact is not confirmed.
All these signs of the disease can be supplemented or manifested in part. And they are typical for most cardiovascular diseases.
In order to prevent coronary heart disease in severe form, treatment should be immediate. Therefore, if you have any symptoms from the listed series, you should immediately contact a specialist. After a detailed medical examination and laboratory tests, you can accurately state the condition: there is a disease or not.
Diagnosis of coronary heart disease
What is ischemic disease, previously stipulated. Now we need to consider how the disease manifests, and there is a diagnosis. The medicine assumes diagnostic researches in the cardiological hospital or the dispensary, characterized by the presence of specialized instrumental techniques. During the external examination and questioning of the patient, the attending physician learns the complaints and notes the signs and causes of ischemia of the heart. But the formulation of a reliable diagnosis of "IHD" is possible only after laboratory tests.
In the process of full inspection, you can identify the symptoms. This is shortness of breath, swelling, cyanosis of the skin, noises in the heart and impaired heart rate. Whereas laboratory and diagnostic tests examine specific enzymes that are elevated during angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Also exploring:
- the content of cholesterol;
- high and low density lipoproteins;
- the presence of sugar in the blood and much more.
But in order to guarantee the correct diagnosis of "coronary heart disease it is necessary to undergo electrocardiography (ECG). This study assumes a clear electrical recording of cardiac activity, which will determine the failure in the work of the myocardium.
While EchoCG will complement the diagnosis and provide visualization of the heart's dimensions, the general condition of the tissues body and its valves, will evaluate myocardial contraction, including the presence of acoustic noises and their character.
If there are indications, stress is used to diagnose echocardiography, which involves the dosage of physical exertion with further registration of the myocardium.
To diagnose the disease, you can take functional tests with the load. This method is applicable when the coronary heart disease is at an early stage and can not be considered at rest. Tests suggest walking, climbing the ladder march, various simulators. In this case, restrictions are possible. After all, it is not always possible for a patient to perform such heavy loads.
For ischemic heart disease to be detected and treatment to be performed at the right time, it is recommended to use a clearer and more consistent method of diagnosis - Holter monitoring of the ECG. This study is performed over the course of the day and identifies intermittent malfunctions in the heart, which becomes possible through a Holter monitor. The latter is fixed on the shoulder or waist of the patient and takes readings, a self-monitoring diary is kept. The patient necessarily makes an hourly mark of his actions and sensations. This technique will provide confirmation or denial of the diagnosis, identify the causes of ischemia, which is important for the treatment of IHD.
How to treat ischemic heart disease?
Before treating ischemia of the heart, we will consider the subtleties of therapy and care for the patient.
If you are wondering whether it is possible to cure coronary heart disease, you should not expect complete recovery. The consequences will remain, but they can be minimized. Which is already good.
Drug therapy is a complex of drugs that help normalize blood flow to the myocardium and remove possible complications. In other words, a disease can be cured by regenerating such a balance.
If you continue to be treated, but this method does not cause improvement in well-being, and the symptomatology of ischemia constantly makes itself felt. Dyspnea occurs more often, the heart rate increases in the absence of weighty reasons, the attending physician can recommend surgical intervention.
Sometimes it is the case that coronary heart disease is caused by a slight hardening of platelets. This does not allow stenting. In this case, you can use the surgical method and remove the thrombus with a special medical instrument resembling a drill. But the use of atherectomy is indicated when the lesion of the artery has covered only a certain area.
If dyspnea and other signs of ischemia continue, and medications do not give a result, you can use the method of radiation. But this is advisable when the main cause of ischemia is the blockage of arteries in large numbers. Surgical intervention is provided by the blood capillaries of the artery.
The operation consists in connecting a person to a special apparatus, which artificially normalizes the blood flow for the period of surgical intervention. The work of the body is forcibly suspended. This method of treatment of IHD is popular because in this case the possibility of complications and side effects is minimized.
Indirect myocardial revascularization by laser
Treatment is topical when it is impossible (contra-indication) of the surgical intervention. The muscles are pierced by the laser in several places. It is there that new blood vessels will appear. This may be a single therapy or a systemic approach. Although the consequences of ischemia in this case, no one excludes.
Complications of IHD
Possible complications of IHD confirm compliance with the rule "I. B. C. which means:
- AND. - myocardial infarction;
- B. - blockade and arrhythmia of the heart;
- FROM. - heart failure.
These are very common diseases, which we will not dwell on in detail. Although we note that they are very dangerous and can cause death if you do not treat CHD in a timely manner.
First aid in CHD
Ischemic heart disease in children is manifested in the same way as in adults. In this case, the complex of pre-hospital care is as follows:
- First of all, eliminate the burden and provide the victim with medicines to stop the pain syndrome.
- Further activities are similar to first aid in angina pectoris, which is also manifested by dyspnoea and severe weakness after exercise.
- To normalize the heart rate, you can perform a carotid sine massage.
- If IHD is complicated by myocardial infarction, call an ambulance as soon as possible. In this case, one can not get by with shortness of breath, it is possible to stop the heart. And here we need specialized medical care.
How many live with ischemic heart disease?
Research Institute of Cardiology. A. L. Myasnikova showed that the fatal outcome in patients who have symptoms of ischemia and an accurately diagnosed disease is comparable to the fatal outcome in the complication of lung cancer.
In this case, the survival forecast for five years depends entirely on the number of affected arteries:
- single-vessel lesion - fatal outcome occurs in 1% of patients;
- double-vascular lesion - 11.8%;
- three-vessel lesion - 20%.
If we take into account the functional class of ischemic disease, the mortality rate for ten years is as follows:
- the first class of angina pectoris suggests a lethal outcome for 45.4% of patients;
- the second class implies an indicator of 53.8% of patients;
- for the third class of angina, mortality is 64.3% of patients;
- and for the last, fourth stage, mortality in 79.2% of cases.
To reduce the risk of death, according to the indications of the attending physician, a defibrillator can be implanted..
Important! In the acute form of myocardial infarction, 35% of people die suddenly, without waiting for an ambulance. And 50% die in the process of hospitalization... ..