How correctly to classify angina in accordance with the provisions of WHO?

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2017.06.24
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Ischemia

Cardiac pathologies significantly impair human health and even put his life at risk. Some diseases are treated on an outpatient basis, but sometimes hospitalization is required. Classification of angina pectoris shows how different there are reasons causing the condition, how to approach first aid and further treatment.

Content

  • general information
  • Types of angina pectoris
    • Classification of stable angina
    • Types of unstable angina
      • First appeared
      • Progressive
      • Early postinfarction
      • The vasospastic (spontaneous)
  • Prevention of disease

general information

Symptoms of an attack of angina of any type have common features. The patient experiences severe suffocating pain behind the sternum, acute discomfort in the heart area. Pain is given to the jaw bones, shoulders and abdomen.

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Important! In some forms of the disease, acute symptoms can be eliminated by taking a calm position, in other cases, taking a tablet of "Nitroglycerin" or the help of medics is required.

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When symptoms of the disease appear, you need to seek medical help as soon as possible

Attacks of pathology occur more often against the background of other cardiovascular diseases. According to some reports, 90% of all angina pectoris develops on the basis of coronary heart disease.

Types of angina pectoris

Angina pectoris is divided into two types:

  • stable;
  • unstable.

Stable angina most often develops only after the transferred loads. The manifestation of unstable form has a wider range of causes and requires urgent attention of the physician.

Classification of stable angina

Since stable angina develops due to severe physical stress on the myocardium, the development of this pathology and the intensity of the symptoms directly depends on the degree of stress.

The table for classes shows, under what loads, how often attacks occur with stable angina pectoris.

Functional classes of angina are divided into 4 categories. At 1 FC the attack develops only after strong overloads. The attack can be single or rarely developed. The first class is often recorded, but if the treatment does not start, the disease progresses.

Stenocardia with 2 FC develops in such cases:

  • if a man climbed the stairs;
  • ran a few hundred meters;
  • sharply changed the climate;
  • received strong psychoemotional stress;
  • has bad habits.

For the second class, the manifestation of symptoms is characteristic under rather heavy loads. It is important to maintain your body, to treat the diagnosing diseases in time to prevent the development of the next stage of the disease.

For the onset of symptoms of the disease, sufficient physical exertion is required

Angina pectoris with 3 FC is manifested if:

  • there was an active walking tour along the flat road;
  • the man climbed a few steps up.

In the third functional class, the symptoms of the disease develop even with minor stresses, which in a healthy person do not cause any discomfort.

According to the WHO classification, with the 4th class of the disease, attacks occur even in a state of complete rest, in a dream. This is the most serious and dangerous stage of the disease.

Types of unstable angina

The World Health Organization identifies four types of unstable angina. We will discuss in more detail:

  • first emerged;
  • progressing;
  • early postinfarction;
  • vasospastic angina.
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Important! All types of unstable angina are considered dangerous. With the development of such a state, it is always necessary to call for emergency ambulance and hospitalization in a hospital.

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First appeared

The exact setting of the diagnosis usually takes a month. The first occurrence of an attack is considered if it occurs no more often than once in 1-2 months.

The danger of this type of disease is that, without proper care, the case may end in a lethal outcome. It is difficult to predict the disease before stabilization. Only if after the drug treatment for a long period of time the seizures did not develop, we can talk about the normalization of the condition and the relative safety of the patient.

Often, the first occurrence of angina pectoris becomes a harbinger of myocardial infarction. It is important to be able to determine this symptom, because the speed of action can depend on a person's life.

The dangerous types of the first unstable angina are those that are not stopped with special medications. If the Nitroglycerin tablet does not work, you need to seek medical help as soon as possible - a heart attack develops!

To prevent progression, it is important to visit the cardiologist regularly. Periodic electrocardiography will allow to see pathological deviations at early stages.

Observing the doctor, you can detect negative changes in time

Progressive

For this type of pathology is characterized by a gradual aggravation of the manifested symptoms. Heart attacks last longer, occur more often, and the patient is more difficult to bear them.

It is possible to increase the functional class. That is, if the symptoms of the disease developed earlier after heavy loads, then as the progression of stable angina progresses, seizures may cause less and less tension.

Pathological worsening of the condition with stable angina is evident in the ECG. Therefore, it is important to maintain the previous results of electrocardiograms.

The onset of progressive angina can be experienced by the individual. There are such symptoms:

  • pain begins to be transmitted to more extensive areas;
  • more drugs are needed to relieve the attack;
  • the attack develops for no apparent reason.

The reason for the development of such angina pandemics is called obstruction of the lumen of the vessels by an atherosclerotic plaque.

Early postinfarction

This form of the disease develops soon after the myocardial infarction. An attack is considered post-infarction in the event that it occurred within the next 4 weeks.

In some cases, the symptoms of the disease after a heart attack develop within two days after the incident. It is very important to provide assistance on time to prevent the development of a second heart attack.

The vasospastic (spontaneous)

This is the most rare form of the disease. The manifestation of symptoms is acute, pronounced. Precisely diagnose the disease can only at the time of the attack. After the subsidence of pain, the picture on the electrocardiogram comes back to normal, and it is not possible to establish an accurate diagnosis.

In another way, this type of disease is called Prinzmetal angina pectoris. Attacks develop at rest, most often in the morning hours of sleep. They can happen very rarely. The rest of the time a person does not feel any discomfort, feeling healthy.

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Attention! The causes of the condition lie in the unexplained spasm of the coronary vessels. Although attacks are usually short and rarely lead to myocardial infarction, the risk is still preserved.

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Prevention of disease

It is important to take care of the body and take care of its health in advance. To not have to treat angina, you need to monitor the condition of the heart and blood vessels.

Adhering to simple recommendations, you can effectively maintain your health:

  • lead a moderately active lifestyle;
  • balanced eating;
  • to refuse from bad habits;
  • avoid emotional stress;
  • Do not overwork and get enough sleep;
  • periodically undergo a medical examination.

More information about the types of angina pectoris and how to cope with it, you can learn from the video:

If you take care of your health in advance, you can never know what angina is and how it manifests itself. If the symptoms of the disease have appeared in a loved one, to save life, you must immediately call an ambulance.

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