What abnormalities in the structure of blood vessels can be detected in cerebral angiography?
Cerebral angiography is one of the ways to diagnose the vessels that feed the human brain. This study allows the doctor to determine the general condition and functionality of the vessels based on the data obtained from the scanning of the painful area by an X-ray machine. Well and for the best display of vessels on pictures the doctor uses a special contrast substance which is entered intravenously in a blood of the patient before the beginning of research.
- Indications for the procedure
- Contraindications to the procedure
- Stages of the procedure
- What can show this procedure?
Indications for the procedure
Cerebral angiography is performed to identify blood vessel pathologies that supply blood to the brain. Based on this, such a study can be assigned to a patient, if he has the following symptoms:
- Persistent or recurrent severe headache.
- Sudden dizziness attacks, which are replaced by fainting.
- Frequent attacks of nausea or even vomiting.
- Drawing or burning pain in the cervical spine.
Angiography should be performed regularly for those patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease, even if they do not have these symptoms.
Well, the list of such patients looks like this:
- People suffering from vegetovascular dystonia.
- Patients who had previously suffered serious head injury.
- Patients who had a stroke.
- People suffering from ischemic heart disease.
In the rarest cases, such a study can be conducted for prevention, without specific indications.
Contraindications to the procedure
In some cases, cerebral angiography is contraindicated to the patient due to the negative impact of contrast agent or X-ray radiation on the body. Thus, the angiography of vessels feeding the brain is categorically forbidden when:
- The patient's allergic reaction to iodine, which is contained in a contrast agent.
- Acute or chronic renal failure. With this pathology, the contrast intravenous drug can not normally be removed from the body, as a result of which, the patient's condition worsens. In such a situation, you can remove the substance from the body only by transfusion of blood.
- Any chronic pathologies in the stage of exacerbation.
- Pregnancy at any time.
- Violations of blood clotting.
- Serious mental disorders.
- Previously transferred myocardial infarction.
Important! The procedure of angiography is strictly prohibited for children under the age of 2 years, since the injected intravenous contrast drug may be negative affect the vessel, completely or partially destroying it, which in turn will entail irreparable consequences, up to lethal outcome..
Stages of the procedure
Angiography is performed with the obligatory presence of an anesthesiologist, a radiologist and a cardioreanimatologist. At the beginning of the procedure, the patient is laid on the couch in a horizontal position, an ovary is placed under the head in order to lower arterial pressure in the vessels of the brain. Next, the doctor determines and treats the antiseptic site puncture, through which the contrast drug is injected into the patient's vessel.
After 30 to 40 minutes after the injected substance enters the blood, the study can continue. For this, the patient is transferred to a special chamber, where the X-ray apparatus can easily scan each of its vessels feeding the brain. The scan results are displayed on the screen as a series of pictures, which are later decrypted.
Important! Depending on how extensively the human brain is scanned, this procedure is divided into two types: selective angiography and a survey. The first study is characterized by the fact that, before carrying out, the contrast agent should be administered locally, only in the vessel that will be further scanned. The second procedure - a review angiography - is characterized by the fact that the contrast drug is introduced into the largest vessel that feeds the entire brain..
What can show this procedure?
Cerebral angiography is considered an informative procedure that can show a complete picture of the state of the vessels of the patient feeding its brain. Based on the results of such a scan, the doctor will be able to determine the following deviations and pathologies:
- Atherosclerosis. With such a pathology, angiography will show a significant decrease in the lumen of the arteries. Such a deviation results from the formation of arteries of atherosclerotic plaques on the inner walls of the artery, which eventually can completely clog the vessel, provoking acute hypoxia.
- Vascular thrombosis of the GM.
- Arteriovenous malformation. These are defects in the structure of the vessels, in which venous and arterial blood is mixed.
- Displacement of blood vessels from its natural place as a result of neoplasm, hemorrhage, or edema. In some cases, the vessel can be placed in its natural position by surgical intervention.
- Neoplasms of the brain, benign or malignant. The vascular network in the tumor region is more developed.
- Aneurysms. In a similar pathology, angiography will show a vessel with a noticeable protrusion or thickening of the wall. However, this study is able to show the length of the affected area, which will indicate the current stage of the disease.
Summarizing, it can be concluded that cerebral angiography is a useful procedure that allows you to check vessels of the GM for the presence of even the smallest deviations in them, which testify to the development of a serious pathology in organism.
If, according to the results of the scan, the blood vessels of a patient from the risk group are normal, it is still desirable for him to undergo this procedure again after a year. If the disease is detected at an early stage of development, the chances of its rapid and effective treatment will be much greater... .