How much hemoglobin should be normal, and what if the indicators go beyond?
Hemoglobin is a protein that is contained in red blood cells and performs the function of transporting oxygen through the body. Its value is large, so the deviation from the norm should not go unnoticed. What is the norm of hemoglobin in men, women and children?
- The norm of the female protein
- Standards for males
- The index in babies
- Normal glycated protein
- Increased hemoglobin
- Causes of a decrease in protein
- Restore the level
The norm of the female protein
Hemoglobin is normal in women 120-140 g / l. But the indicator varies depending on the age of the person. In a newborn child and up to adulthood, the designation of the indicator for boys and girls is the same.
With age, the normal protein is in the blood in different concentrations:
- 18 years - 115 - 140 grams per liter.
- 19-30 years - 118 - 150.
- 30-40 years - 122 - 145.
- 40-50 years - 120 - 140.
- 50-60 years - 116 - 133.
- 60-70 years - 115 - 135.
- 70-85 years - 105 - 131.
Separately it is necessary to tell about women who wait for the child. They have a reduced content of this substance. Normally, hemoglobin in the blood in this period of life is 110-128 g / l. This decrease is due to the fact that more blood is circulating in the body during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester.
A low level of free protein is observed during menstruation. Normal hemoglobin during this period is 110-124 g / l. But for women, professionally engaged in sports, the indicator is high - up to 160 g / l. The level of the substance can also be increased for smokers - up to 150 g / l. This is considered a normal level of hemoglobin for such categories of patients.
Standards for males
In adult men, the blood count is different from women. What should hemoglobin be normal for a stronger sex? They have a lower limit of 140 g / l, and the upper limit is 160 g / l. Men are inherently capable of carrying more physical exertion than women. In this regard, and oxygen is needed more.
For all patients, one value can not be set, because the specific norm depends on the lifestyle. For example: in men who are actively involved in sports, the level of iron-containing protein is higher. If a person moves little, then the indicator will decrease.
Most patients have an elevated hemoglobin concentration in the morning, and a lowered concentration in the evening. The indicator is also higher for those who smoke or live in the highlands. In elderly men over 50 years of age, the protein content is reduced to 118-139 g / l.
The index in babies
What kind of normal hemoglobin in children, you can tell exactly, knowing the age of the child. Since before adolescence, the level of protein varies. In toddlers who have recently been born, in the blood fetal form of hemoglobin. In a one-year-old child, he is replaced by regular hemoglobin.
In the first month of the child's life the index is high. Then it goes down. This is a normal phenomenon, which corresponds to the natural processes occurring in the body. By the year the indicator varies between 105-135 g / dL.
It is necessary to know, what norm of a hemoglobin in blood on age at children. The table shows the approximate indicators:
|Age||Protein level in g / l|
|Up to 15 years||115-150|
The specific level of hemoglobin in the blood depends on the factors:
- The term of the birth of a baby. If the baby was born prematurely, the protein concentration in the blood is reduced.
- The general state of health is crumbs. If children have a disease, it affects the amount of hemoglobin.
- Feeding. Healthy babies who are breastfed always have a normal protein score. If the basis for feeding is artificial mixture, then the level may fall. From the age of three months, lure begins, which can be unbalanced and lower hemoglobin levels in the blood.
- Heredity. If the mother suffered increased or decreased hemoglobin, then the child can also get such a problem.
To maintain the norm of the substance in question in the blood, parents should give preference to breast-feeding by mother's milk. When the lure will begin, to balance a diet of the child.
It is necessary that enough iron and vitamin C be supplied with food, which helps the first element to be fully absorbed into the blood. More time to spend in the fresh air.
Do not forget about regular trips to the pediatrician and the delivery of tests. These measures will keep the level of hemoglobin in the norm. That is important, since deviations can cause health problems.
Normal glycated protein
People who suffer from diabetes have a different blood and urine composition. Therefore, the level of hemoglobin differs from that of healthy people. The rate of glycated protein in diabetics depends on the degree of disease, nature.
There is a separate laboratory blood test that helps determine the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. Its result is important for the purpose of treating a diabetic patient. Clinical analysis is mandatory even if there is prediabetes.
Normally, the protein is, percent of the sugar content in the blood. If the result of the study shows a deviation in the range of, %, then the doctor suspects the development of diabetes mellitus. These patients are at risk, and should give blood every 3 months.
If a laboratory blood test indicates that the level of hemoglobin is higher than the established rate, then there is an occasion for a complete examination of the patient in order to identify the cause of the disorder.
Culprits of high protein content can be pathologies such as erythremia, heart problems, blood thickening, burns, intestinal obstruction, blood diseases and oncology.
But not always the raised concentration of hemoglobin speaks about the presence of pathological processes. Sometimes the cause may be physiological factors that do not require concern. These include physical activity, living in a mountainous area, where the composition of air is slightly different and the organism perceives it differently.
After all, many people experienced mild dizziness, the code went out into the fresh air or went up into the mountains. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that oxygen is actively circulating in the blood, blood circulation is accelerating, an increase in the amount of hemoglobin is caused.
People who abuse alcohol, can increase hemoglobin and ferritin. After all, binge is accompanied by oxygen starvation, a violation of blood circulation in the body, which negatively affects the production of protein.
Causes of a decrease in protein
Most often, patients have a low level of hemoglobin. To the causes of the condition include ailments:
- Bleeding. Open or internal. Usually a strong loss of blood occurs during surgery, with trauma, hemorrhoids, diseases of the uterus in the girl, profuse menstruation, pathology of the digestive organs.
- Incorrect food. Due to the imbalance in the diet, there are few substances in the body that are needed to produce hemoglobin.
- Parasites. It often occurs when the body lacks vitamin B12.
- Pathologies of the stomach and intestines. Pathologies of these organs interfere with normal absorption and absorption of iron, because the mucous membrane suffers.
- Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis. Because of them, the erythrocytes in the blood are destroyed massively and prematurely. The amount of hemoglobin also falls.
- Hypothyroidism. It occurs because of an insufficient number of thyroid hormones. After all, they regulate the process of absorption of iron in the intestine. Therefore, their deficiency leads to a decrease in the concentration of iron and hemoglobin in the blood.
- Autoimmune pathologies. They cause damage and destruction of body tissues, which leads to the development of the inflammatory process, the breakdown of red blood cells.
- Malignant blood diseases, for example: eikoz, or tumors of internal organs, chemotherapy.
- Frequent stress. These negative phenomena have a bad effect on the mental state of a person, provoke a state of depression. If a person for a long time is under the influence of stressful situations, the hemoglobin content will drop to a critical level.
- Low level of physical activity. Because of this, the blood moves slowly through the blood vessels, so the signals come to the brain about the high content of erythrocytes in the body. As a result, the production of protein stops, hemoglobin decreases.
The natural reason for lowering the iron-containing protein is donation. But the level of hemoglobin is quickly restored to normal if the person is healthy. If there are problems, the donor is not allowed to donate blood.
Restore the level
To normalize hemoglobin in the blood, you need to know the exact cause that led to the deviation. After all, if a person has pathologies of digestive organs that interfere with the full absorption of iron in the intestines, then the diet will not help. In this case, all efforts should be directed towards eliminating the disease.
If the cause is not a disease, then you can solve the problem by adjusting the diet. It is necessary to include in the daily menu products rich in iron, vitamin B and C, folic acid. Together with the right diet to lead an active lifestyle, to use people's means.
If the level of hemoglobin is not normalized by diet and sports, the doctor can advise the intake of iron-containing drugs. Usually prescribed in tablets, but in neglected cases, patients may be placed droppers.
If a person tolerates medicines well, at first the doctor will show a greater dosage. Then, it is reduced to a minimal dose and taken as maintenance therapy for several months.
If necessary, the doctor will prescribe the intake of vitamin B12, folic acid and ascorbic acid. In severe situations resort to blood transfusion.
With an increased level of hemoglobin, doctors prescribe drugs that dilute blood. Such funds can be used only with the consent of the attending doctor.
If the deviation is not critical, then it is possible to restore the indicator by changing the diet. In the case of elevated hemoglobin from the diet to remove foods that are rich in iron.
Health problems are always better to warn than to cure. Therefore, it is necessary to do laboratory analysis of venous blood at least twice a year and to know how much there should be hemoglobin in the blood, monitor other indicators: mean ESR, number of leukocytes, platelets and other important elements... .